Warning: Declaration of TCB_Menu_Walker::walk($elements, $max_depth) should be compatible with Walker::walk($elements, $max_depth, ...$args) in /home/author06/public_html/launchknowledge.com/wp-content/plugins/thrive-visual-editor/inc/classes/class-tcb-menu-walker.php on line 0

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/author06/public_html/launchknowledge.com/wp-content/plugins/thrive-visual-editor/plugin-core.php:89) in /home/author06/public_html/launchknowledge.com/wp-content/plugins/sg-cachepress/core/Supercacher/Supercacher_Helper.php on line 77
Launch Knowledge - Page 3 of 12 - When you need to know now

When was Basketball Invented?

By admin / December 7, 2017
When was Basketball Invented

The history of basketball began with its creation in 1891 in Springfield, Massachusetts, by a Canadian P.E. instructor named James Naismith. The sport was created as a way for people to become physically active but be exposed to fewer risks of injury compared to American football. The sport soon became popular as the years progressed, spreading throughout the States and ultimately the world.

When the game was invented by Naismith, there were 13 original rules that the players had to abide by:

1. The ball is allowed to be thrown in any direction with either or both hands

2. The ball may be knocked away with either or both hands

3. A player is not allowed to run while in possession of the ball, and the ball must be thrown from the spot upon catching it. An exception is made for players whose momentum takes them forward several paces after catching the ball.

4. The ball must be held in either hand or between both hands. The arms and body are not to be used for holding.

5. No shouldering, pushing, tripping or hitting opponents is strictly forbidden. The first violation will be counted as a foul, and a second violation will disqualify the player until a goal is made. If a player committed this foul with the intention of causing injury, then the player is disqualified from the whole game without substitute.

6. A foul is striking the ball with a balled-fist.

7. If a team commits three consecutive fouls, then a point will be awarded to the opponents.

8. A goal is recorded when the ball is thrown or batted into the basket and remains there. If the ball is on the edge of the basket and an opposing player moves the basket then it will count as a goal.

9. When the ball is out of bounds, the ball should be thrown back into the field and played by the person who makes contact with the ball first. If there is a dispute regarding who touched the ball first, the umpire will throw the ball straight into the field. The person who is throwing the ball in is given five seconds to act before the ball is given to the opposing team. If both teams continue holding the ball with the intent of delaying the game then both teams will be given fouls.

10. The umpire judges the players and notes any violations. He is also to report to the referee when three consecutive fouls were made.

11. The referee will become judge of the ball and decide when it is in play, in bounds, and which side has possession of the ball, as well as act as timekeeper. The referee decides whether a goal is made and keeps account of how many goals were made.

12. Playing time is two 15-minute halves with a 5-minute break between halves.

13. The team with more goals is declared the winner. If a game ends in a draw, then both team captains can decide whether to continue to game until a team scores the next goal to decide the winner.

The first-ever game of basketball was a 9-on-9 game played between Naismith’s students. In the beginning, basketball was played with a peach basket and a soccer ball. A scored ball rested within the basket and had to be poked out using a stick.

The YMCA played a significant role in introducing the sport throughout North America and eventually the world. During World War I, Naismith spent two years with the YMCA in France. During the war, American troops would take the essentials and play basketball whenever possible.

The very first basketball professional league, called the National Basketball League, was founded in 1898 and consisted of six original teams, but was disbanded after only six years. Several other leagues were established but eventually fell apart after only a short period. However, between 1920 and 1939, three professional leagues were established (Eastern Basketball League, Metropolitan Basketball League, and American Basketball League) and are mainly responsible for shaping the way the game is played today.

Basketball became a tremendously popular sport in colleges all over the US. The first known college team to play was from Vanderbilt University and played against the local YMCA in 1983. The first recorded game between opposing college teams was a 9-on-9 match held in 1985. The match was between Hamline University and Minnesota A&M, with Minnesota winning 9-3.

Europe instantly took to basketball when it was introduced to the continent, but it wasn’t until 1932 that the first international organization when established. Argentina and several European countries formed the International Basketball Federation in Greece. This was the first stepping stone for the sport to become officially played in the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games.

In 1946, the Basketball Association of America was established and became the largest North American basketball league. Three years later, they became the infamous NBA we know today. The American Basketball Association (ABA) was made in 1967 as an alternative to the NBA. The league is responsible for making the sport as exciting and lively as it is today with the implementation of colorful balls, play styles, and the 3-point shot. However, the ABA folded in 1976 and was absorbed by the NBA. Four of the ABA’s largest franchises (NY Nets, Denver Nuggets, Indiana Pacers, and San Antonio Spurs) were incorporated into the NBA. After being acquired, the NBA soon continued the excitement-filled game style of the ABA and the 3-point shot.

Basketball has always been an American favorite, and apparently the world seems to agree that the game is worthy of praise. To date, there are multiple international leagues, numerous continental leagues, and competitive games are played at the high school and even junior high school levels. Although the rules of the game have been changed in order to suit the growing players (in the 1930s, the average height was 6-feet; today, it is 6-feet-7), most of the original 13 rules devised by Naismith persist until today.

Do Women Have an Adam’s apples?

By admin / December 5, 2017
Do Women Have an Adam’s apples

What’s with the Adam’s apple? How come men have them and women don’t? What exactly is the purpose of having one? These are all good questions, and like any good question, they come with simple yet confusing answers.

A common misconception is that only men are entitled to having an Adam’s apple (it’s named after the very first man, is it not?) and women aren’t given the privilege of having one because this is a male-dominated society. This is as far away from the truth as possible; both men and women have Adam’s apples in their throats, but they’re just not as prominent in women as they are in men, for the most part.

During the early stages of childhood, both boys and girls start with thyroid cartilage that is similar in size. As the years go by and they hit puberty, they will both experience significant changes to their respective bodies. As for the young men, their larynxes (voice boxes) will become enlarged due to the extra levels of testosterone produced in their bodies, causing the voice box to stick out more prominently in the throat. The testosterone levels in blossoming young women will also increase, so their voice boxes will increase in size also, but rarely do they become as swollen as men’s.

There are various explanations as to why the Adam’s apple exists but you’re free to add your own ideas into the pool of ideas. Some argue that the Adam’s apple, along with the surrounding thyroid cartilage, protects the walls and front-most area of the larynx, and prevents us from inhaling or swallowing foreign substances (they haven’t helped teens when they take up the Tide Pod challenge so this is still debatable). Others say that there is no anatomical function of having one other than to give men (and some women) a deeper speaking and singing voice. They can also be used as a tell-tale sign of when a man is lying through his teeth or if he’s nervous, since repeated swallowing will make the apple bounce up and down.

Prominent, more pronounced Adam’s apples are more frequently found in men than in women, so it is a common way of determining somebody’s gender. However, the cartilage surrounding the voice box can fuse at any angle and direction in both men and women, so the final size of the apple varies from person to person. Some men have smaller Adam’s apples, and some women have bigger ones. In the end, the size of the apple doesn’t matter at all; what matters is the sign of your heart… Moving on…

Some women with more prominent Adam’s apples feel embarrassed due to its association with manliness, but this is just another misconception ingrained deeply in the minds of western society. Having a larger Adam’s apple does indeed deepen the voice, but in women their voices hardly affected by it. Very rarely do we hear a woman with a deep voice, even those with more visible Adam’s apples. The shape and size of the Adam’s apple is completely up to fate, so having a large, prominent one doesn’t mean you’re the alpha male, and having a small one doesn’t mean you were born in the wrong gender.

Well, if women also have Adam’s apples like males do, then where did the name “Adam’s apple” come from? We know that the medical term for the lump is actually prominentia laryngea (laryngeal prominence) but what’s with the whole “Adam” part?

There are believed to be two theories which describe the coining of the term Adam’s apple. The first theory starts with the 1913 version of Webster’s Dictionary which points at the Biblical retelling of Adam and Eve as a basis for the term. Adam consumed the forbidden fruit while in Heaven, and was cursed to live on Earth for the remaining days of his mortal life. The forbidden fruit supposedly left a lump in his throat, and his line of sons were all cursed with the same protruding feature on their throats.

This theory has a wonderful story behind the name Adam’s apple, but the basis of the story is not supported by the Bible or any other Abrahamic religious scripture. In fact, there’s no mention of the forbidden fruit being an apple. It might even have been a watermelon for all we know, and there’s no scripture that outright denies it. And didn’t Eve also partake of the forbidden fruit alongside Adam? Wasn’t she just as guilty of the sin as he was?

The second theory for why the enlarged voice box became known as an Adam’s apple is because of a mistranslation from ancient Hebrew to Latin and ultimately into English. In ancient Hebrew, the Adam’s apple was known as tappuach ha adam which means apple of man. However, adam simple means man, but tappuach can be translated into either apple or swollen. The complete translation of the phrase would either be apple of man or swelling of a man, the latter being more reasonable.

However, when the term was picked up by Latin scribes, they took the former translation and made a direct translation into their own language, pomum Adami, literally meaning Adam’s apple. The western world took hold of the screwed up translation and the rest is history.

So there you have it. Both men and women have Adam’s apples in their throats but they are generally more prominent in men than in women. All children begin life with similar-sized Adam’s apples that become enlarged when they hit puberty, but growing males will swell to greater sizes which makes the Adam’s apple pop forward in their throats. The exact function of having one is still argued to date, so you can throw your theories around and nothing can prove you wrong. As for the name Adam’s apple, this was just a hilarious mistranslation that stuck, and nobody in time ever corrected it. We can learn to use the correct medical term, prominentia laryngea, but that’ll just add to the confusion of the little-thought-of organ found in our throats.

Do Fingerprints Grow Back If Burnt?

By admin / December 3, 2017
Do Fingerprints Grow Back If Burnt

Humans are truly amazing creatures. We have the ability to re-grow any lost teeth… Oh wait, those are sharks. At least we can regenerate our limbs if we lose them to injury… Oh no, those are starfish. Well, is there any amazing regeneration ability that humans possess? Oh right, our fingerprints can regenerate, but only if the bottom-most layer of skin is undamaged.

Fingerprints themselves are truly an amazing trait. While still fetuses and swimming around in amniotic fluid, these unique prints are already developed on the tips of our digits. The arches and swirls differ from person to person, thus making fingerprinting an important part of identification.

Fingerprints are also durable and, for the most part, unsusceptible to damage. Certain situations can cause us to lose our fingerprints, such as cuts and scrapes, but even then it’s just a one-week wait before the prints return to their swirly selves.

However, in extreme cases such as second or third degree burns, the skin on the fingertips can become so damaged that the skin can never heal properly ever again. When the dermis becomes damaged, fingerprints can never return to their original shape, and the person who suffered such severe skin trauma will be unidentifiable through fingerprinting. It’s not just burns that can damage the dermis; if you were to cut your finger and peel the skin off all the way down to the dermis, you would inflict enough damage on your fingertips to never regenerate fingerprints ever again.

This article contains a list of situations that can affect fingerprints and whether fingerprints can be regenerated afterwards.

First degree burns

First degree burns only affect the outermost layer of the skin. When the dermis beneath heals, the fingertips will regenerate their original swirl patterns, but even first degree burns can leave a mechanical deformation (blistering and tearing) that can weaken fingerprint features.

Second degree burns

Second degree burns, also known as partial thickness burns, damage the epidermis and parts of the dermis layer underneath. The affected area will become inflamed, blistered, and can be painful to the touch. Second degree burns can be caused by contact with scalding objects, direct contact with flames, sun burn, chemical burns, and even electric shocks. If your fingertips experience second degree burns, there is a higher chance that your digits will not heal properly and your unique fingerprints will be lost.

Third degree burns

Third degree burns, known also as a full thickness burn, is a burn that damages all three skin layers and even bones and muscle. This is the most serious type of burn and will require close monitoring by a professional in order to induce proper, but not perfect, healing. Third degree burns are most commonly caused by chemical spills, electrical shocks, and prolonged exposure to hot liquids or solids. If you have had third degree burns on your fingers, you can kiss your fingerprints goodbye.

Physically scraped off

Fingerprint ridges are extremely susceptible to wear. Heavy work which exposed fingertips, like bricklaying, can cause a person’s fingers and hands to become calloused, hardening the fingertips and deforming the fingerprints. This will render that person unsuitable for fingerprint identification until the skins becomes softer and the fingerprint ridges become more prominent.

Losing fingerprints isn’t just common in bricklayers and other physically-intensive lines of work. In fact, playing instruments can also cause your fingerprint ridges to smoothen out, making fingerprints scans basically useless. However, just like with the aforementioned bricklayers, if you avoid playing your musical instruments (piano, guitar, violin, etc.) for long periods of time, you should expect to re-grow your prints within a week or two.

Born without fingerprints

Some people are born without any distinguishing fingerprints. There are three known genetic conditions which result is a lack of fingerprints: NFJS (Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome), Dermatopathia, and Adermatoglyphia. The first two conditions have other serious symptoms such as hyperpigmentation, irregular sweating and hair, teeth and skin anomalies. These diseases are caused by a mutation of the keratin gene which is possibly a cause of cellular self-destruction in the dermis. Adermatoglyphia is a condition where a person experiences no symptoms other than a lack of fingerprints. It is a hereditary condition so it’s possible for whole families to have missing fingerprints.

Old age

There is a common misconception that fingerprints can change, and age is a factor which causes them to alter their appearance. However, this is untrue, and the “changes” that appear on fingerprints are caused by a loose skin. The skin is an elastic organ which loses its tightness over the years. In addition, aging isn’t really a contributing factor to losing fingerprints, but the wrinkles on your fingers can cause a diminished appearance when checking the prints.

Handling pineapples

Many people find it surprising that handling this prickly fruit can reduce the appearance of fingerprints. What many people don’t know about pineapples is that the edible flesh contains a protein-digesting enzyme called Bromelain. This is the reason why an untreated piece of pineapple causes a tingling sensation on the tongue. That sensation is the bromelain enzymes digesting your mouth!

This is the reason why workers in pineapple processing facilities will experience a seemingly unexplainable loss of fingerprints, rendering fingerprint scanning useless. The ridges of the swirly fingerprints are being eaten by the enzyme, leading to less pronounced features and, in extreme cases, complete loss of fingerprints. If these workers wish to rejuvenate their unique prints, they should either use heavy duty gloves while handling the fruit, or take a week-long break from work to recover.

So there you have it, the multiple causes of fingerprint loss. Luckily for humans, only the most extreme, worst cases can cause permanent damage to our digits and loss of fingerprints. Most of the time, people will find their fingerprints return to their normal shape after long resting periods. In the end, losing fingerprints is not a big deal since there are other forms of identifying someone, and even fingerprints can sometimes lead to false positives in forensics labs.

How Long Does Gum Take to Digest in the Body?

By admin / December 1, 2017
how long does gum take to digest

​The short answer to this question is, “The same amount of time it takes for your body to digest other kinds of foods.”

It’s amazing that human have been chewing gum for over up to 9,000 years. What’s even more amazing is that with modern science, technology and advances in medicine, most people are still unfamiliar with the intricacies of our digestive system and how gum is treated in our guts.

In fact, we’ve probably been exposed to a number of food myths since we were children. Your parent or peers may have told you that eating carrots is so good for your eyes that you can gain the ability to see in the dark. Or maybe you’ve heard that eating bread crusts can contribute to having curly hair. Or perhaps you’ve seen on TV that eating large quantities of sugar can give you a “sugar high” and make you hyperactive. These myths are just that: myths without scientific basis. But perhaps you’ve heard the most famous food myth about chewing gum.

We have all probably heard at one point in our childhood that gum, when swallowed, will stay in our stomachs for 7 years before becoming digested and expelled from the body. Maybe we’ve even taken up the challenge and intentionally swallowed a piece of gum and waited several years just to see what would happen. However, if you’ve done this, you would have found yourself abandoning the experiment after a few weeks or months because nothing bad happened

Well, for those of you who quit keeping track after several months or years, that’s completely fine because the legends are untrue. Gum, when swallowed, is dissolved in our gastric juices and shot out of our bodies when we go to the toilet. The truth of it all is just an unexciting as digesting non-chewing gum foods. It’s true that gum isn’t 100% digested but that’s not exactly a problem. If you’ve ever eaten whole pieces of corn kernels, then… You know where I’m going with this: the non-digested parts come out of our bodies as waste.

Our digestive system is a complicated and effective system which breaks down foods. When swallowing, the food travels down the esophagus into the stomach. Enzymes and acids in the digestive tract begin the digestion process. Partially digested foods are transferred into the intestine where the food is broken down into its components and absorbed by the body, with the help of our livers and pancreas. The digested parts of our food are converted into energy to power our bodies. Anything leftover is left undigested until they are sent to and through our colons and turned into waste.

Although our stomach doesn’t break down pieces of gum as it would other for other foods, our bodies can keep the gum flowing smoothly within our digestive system through regular intestinal activity. After our bodies absorb whatever it can from the sticky candy, we expel the gum from our bodies through having a bowel movement.

This isn’t to say that swallowing gum can’t be problematic. Similar to swallowing other rubbery substances, if you eat and swallow a large amount of gum in a short period of time, it can obstruct the digestive tract. However, these cases are extremely rare and won’t happen unless you intentionally partake in mounds and mounds of chewing gum.

Young children will need to be taught that chewing gum is for chewing and not swallowing. This may be a difficult concept to grasp but when the candy loses its sweetness and becomes bland in flavor then hopefully they’ll get the gist. However, even children who swallow small amounts of gum will most likely not suffer from a blocked digestive tract.

Chewing gum is basically treated like a foreign body and, although gum will be digested when it reaches the stomach, it can cause blockage similar to other foreign objects like coins, sunflower seed shells, and plastic. This is because of the ingredients used to make the chewing gum isn’t all that digestable.

Candy gum is made with natural or synthetic materials like gum resin, flavorings, preservatives, and sweetening agents. The body absorbs the sweeteners which can accumulate into a lot of calories if you chew gum excessively. However, the body is unable to process the gum resin and the ingredient is pushed through the digestive tract by normal intestinal movements (peristaltic). Your gum’s journey to the center of the stomach ends with a visit to the bathroom.

In general, you shouldn’t allow young children to chew on gum until they understand the complicated concept of “spit it out when it’s no longer sweet.” Until you child understands, usually at around age 5 or age 3 for super advanced young geniuses, just stick to giving them other teeth-rotting sweets. However, if your younger sibling is asking for a piece of gum, just ask mom and dad if it’s okay.

For older children who are experienced in the art of gum-chewing and bubble-blowing, remind them that too much of the sweet can have terrible consequences. Unless the gum is sugar-free (and flavor-free), excessive gum chewing can lead to cavities. Even sugar-free gum with sorbitol added to it can cause unintended effects like diarrhea. A good rule of thumb to follow is limit yourself to one to two pieces of sugar-free gum per day, and when you’re done, just spit the thing out into the nearest garbage receptacle.

So the next time you’re chewing on a piece of gum and find yourself in a sticky situation without a napkin to place your gum in, or you take a trip to Singapore and are smuggling chewed pieces of gum in your mouth illegally, remember that you can swallow your gum with confidence and with little to no negative consequences. However, refrain from doing this repeatedly in a short period of time, and especially avoid swallowing the gum mound if you’ve inserted multiples pieces of the cavity-causing candy into your mouth.

How Long Does Jellyfish Sting Last?

By admin / November 14, 2017
Jellyfish

How Long Does Jellyfish Sting Last?

If you love going to the beach and taking a dip in the water then chances are you have had an encounter with a jellyfish. As cool as they may look, jellyfish can be quite dangerous especially if you get trapped in the middle of a school of them. When they come in contact with humans, jellyfish tentacle release a venom which feels like a sting. A single sting from a jellyfish may not be deadly but it hurts quite a lot and may cause other problems. If you are trapped in the middle of a school however and get stung multiple times there is a chance it may result in death.

How long does the sting last?

If you are stung by a jellyfish, you will feel intense pain right away. You will feel a burning sensation that tends to last anywhere from one to several hours, depending on how intense the sting was. You can also develop welts along the area of the sting which can last up to 2 weeks usually. Another problem people face is skin rash after being stung which can occur with the welts and the rash can last anywhere from one to four weeks.

It is important you leave the site of the sting and get out of the water immediately after you are stung. Especially if you have been stung by a box jellyfish whose sting can be fatal. You will need immediate attention in case of a box jellyfish sting as an antivenom is required.

Once stung by the jellyfish you should rinse the area where stung with hot water. This will help remove any part of the tentacle that is left on your skin, saltwater will also work. You don’t want to use the following on the affected area: gasoline, kerosene or urine. When the area is clean, you can use an ice pack which will help with the pain. Vaseline works great to secure the affected area. Depending on whether you develop welts or rash, you should treat the area accordingly.

In case you have allergies to the sting, you should call for help immediately. If you face any of the following symptoms it means you are allergic to the sting:

  • Hives on your body

  • Swelling of any part of the body especially the mouth, lips, throat, or tongue

  • Shortness of breath or breathing problem

  • Loss of consciousness

It is important you go ready. It is understandable that you intend to have fun at the beach. However, accidents can happen and jellyfish are quite common around the world. So it is better you go prepared so you can easily manage if you or anyone in your family is stung by a jellyfish.

How to Unscrew a Stripped Screw

By admin / November 12, 2017
how to unscrew a stripped screw

It’s happened to the handiest of us, we aimlessly work at a unscrewing a screw only making it stripped. Stripped screws may seem like a nuisance, but there are some neat ways to easily unscrew them. So don’t get too frustrated trying to unscrew a stripped screw, try our tips and you should have no problem.

Slightly stripped screw

If the screw is not completely stripped, yet doesn’t unscrew easily with a screwdriver then all you need is a rubber band to provide some grip. You put the rubber band over the end of the screwdriver and place it on top of the screw. It should fit properly as the rubber band easily adds a little more surface space for the screwdriver while easily adapting to the shape of it. You can turn the screwdriver and the screw should become loose.

Completely stripped screw

When it comes to completely stripped screws chances are you are going to need some additional tools. You can first start with a drill and screw extractor. Screw extractors can be tricky as they come in different sizes and shape so you need to make sure you get the right one for the stripped screw. Once you have it, you put the extractor on the drill and set the drill motion to reverse. You then go at the screw with the drill and extractor and the screw should easily come out.

Another way to unscrew a stripped screw is by cutting a notch in it. This isn’t a good option if the screw is deep into the object since you will use a rotary tool, there is a chance you may damage the object. If you do decide to go with this approach then all you have to do is cut a straight line across the screw with a rotary tool. This will make a single slot in the screw which can easily be unscrewed with a flathead screwdriver.

Stripped screws aren’t the only problem at times, screws are drilled too deep making them hard to get out. If that happens then we have a solution for you. With the help of wood plug cutter, you can easily create enough room for a screwdriver to reach the screw. You cut the region where the screw is with the wood plug cutter which will give you more than enough space to easily fit a screwdriver and unscrew it. Note, that this approach will mean cutting some wood and leaving a bigger hole in the object.

Most of us tend to give up when it comes to stripped screw, leaving them as they are. That is a solution if you are fine with it being there. However, if you are looking to upgrade or make any changes to furniture or a device then it is important that you unscrew that stripped screw. With more than one way to unscrew a stripped screw, you can now easily do it.


Kosher Salt vs Regular Salt – What’s The Difference?

By admin / November 10, 2017
Kosher Salt

Before getting into the difference between kosher and regular salt, it is important to understand that taste wise the two are the same. So you can substitute one for the other but there is a catch to it. Have you ever substituted kosher salt for regular salt and found the food to be bland? Or maybe you did it the other way around and found it to be too salty. You wonder why that is?

Content of salt differs in regular and kosher salt

The makeup of the two salt differs quite a lot, so if you substitute one for the other then you need to keep that in mind. Kosher salt is bigger in size, however, lighter and flakier while regular salt is more compact and uniformly sized. So when substituting one for the other, you need to make sure you substitute it properly. For example, if a recipe calls for 1/3 a cup of kosher salt but you decide to use regular salt, you will end up using a lot more salt than the recipe calls for. Since the size is more compact, there would be a lot more grain of salt in 1/3 cup of regular salt than that of kosher salt which is larger in size. Which would make your food a lot saltier. The easy solution to this is to measure by grams so you can ensure you get the right amount.

Regular Salt

The reason why most chefs prefer kosher salt is because of its size. Since the salt is bigger and has lesser “salt” content, you can easily season food with it and taste it. It gives you more control over how much salt to use. A pinch of regular salt will be stronger than a pinch of kosher salt. So it is safer in a way to use kosher salt because it isn’t as strong. Also, due to its size, kosher salt is easier to handle. With smaller grains, regular salt can easily slip through the hands even if you want to stop using it whereas kosher salt would remain.

The type of salt you use in your food doesn’t make much of a difference, taste wise. So if you run out of kosher salt, you don’t need to panic. You can easily substitute it with regular salt but make sure you sprinkle it in and taste it as you do. After all, regular, kosher, and sea salt all have the same chemical makeup of sodium chloride.

When Do You Use the Pound Key on a Phone?

By admin / November 8, 2017
IVR system

​The pound key was introduced on a phone touchpad in the 1970s by Bell Labs. It was originally called “octothorpe.” The key has numerous different names around the world from pound, number, and hash. The reason for introducing both the star and pound key on a phone was to allow phone callers access to telephone-computer systems.

IVR

Today, many companies have an IVR system installed. The system is automated and with the help of the touchpad, you can tell the system exactly what you want. If you need to enter a number for the system to understand then the number is generally followed by the pound/hash key. In entering the pound key, you let the system know that you have entered your desired number. Without entering the pound key at the end, the computer would not be able to figure out the number you have entered.

Access to the phone system

Smartphones use computer-based chips and are a lot smarter than we think. Now, many people are unaware but they can actually dig deep into their phones, look at how it actually functions and what it runs with the help of their touchpad. Many smartphones come with specific keys that start with the pound button and end with it. These codes are usually known to experts that allows them to really get into the computer system of the phone. The pound sign in the code tells the system the beginning and end of the code which then presents the information requested.

In this case the pound sign is again used to not only end a specific code for the computer to read but also start it.

As phones get more and more advanced, we can see the use of hash button starting to dwindle. Yes, you still use it on IVRs but even IVR systems are getting smarter and some are just voice controlled. So it will be interesting to see if the touchpad will evolve with the advancing of computers and phone systems. However, for now, the pound symbol plays a vital role allowing people a way to speak to telephone-based computer systems and the phone itself. So don’t expect much to change.

What is the Difference Between a Turtle and a Terrapin Turtle?

By admin / October 3, 2017
Turtle

According to the taxonomic order of chelonian that comes from a Greek word, both turtle and terrapin turtle fall in the class of reptiles. They have all the characteristics of reptiles such as scales, breath oxygen, lay eggs and they are both cold-blooded. However, these replies have distinctions among themselves, which arise from different habitats in which they live. In countries like Australia, the terminology varies from sea turtle to tortoise, while in the United States, the name turtle refers to those that live in or near the waters. With that in mind, there are common differences between the two reptiles.

Turtles

Turtles are mostly or rather complete aquatic animals. They inhabit seas, oceans, lakes, and rivers. Turtles, on the other hand, do spend long time in water and only come on dry land when it is time to lay eggs. An example is the sea turtle. Other types of turtles live a double life. They tend to swim in freshwater ponds and lakes and spend time on dryland basking in the sun and digging in the mud as well.

They have webbed feet, which enable them to swim fast and to stay strong. They have streamlined body while the sea turtle has long flippers. Different turtles have different diets. Some are vegetarians and some are omnivores; they eat sea-vegetation, small invertebrates, small insects and some eat jellyfish.

The shell

Turtle shells consist of approximately 50-60 bones covered by interlocking plates known as Scutes, which builds the exoskeleton. The bottom half of the turtle shell is called plastron and the top is called carapace. As it seems, the shell is not only protective to the life of a turtle. It also has fixed nerves, which are receptive to feelings such as pressure of weight and pain. Turtles accumulate growth rings showing the spurts relative to the scarcity of the food. This is contrary to the belief that you can tell the age of a turtle by the number of rings on the shell. Turtles can live for up to 150 years.

Terrapin Turtles

On the other hand, Terrapins are turtles that adapt to semi-aquatic life. They stay mainly in salty waters and near brackish or rather swampy placeless. Their genus is like a mix between turtle and tortoise, because of the time spent both in water and in dryland. Terrapins are small with hard shells shaped like those of turtles. Their bodies bear streamlines and rounded dome shapes like those of tortoise. The word terrapin originates from an Algonquian Indian word, which means little turtle. Terrapin turtles have a lifespan of around 30-40 years unlike that of sea turtle.

Terrapin Turtle

In ponds, large water tanks and aquariums, it should have adequate heating and lighting, the water temperature should be between 30 and 35 degrees. Their sizes range between 22 and 25 centimeters. Most of the sea turtles are cold-blooded or rather ectothermic, which means they cannot regulate their body temperatures. This depends on the surroundings and this feature favors the turtle because it enables them to lower their metabolic rate. Hence, they require less oxygen and stay underwater for a long time. Sea turtle can travel a long distance in water and the male turtle is able to navigate its way back to their natal beaches. At times turtles do get stranded or even die when they experience cold water or tropical temperatures.

Types of terrapin turtles

Terrapin turtles fall into three different categories:  red-eared, yellow-bellied, and Cumberland sliders. They live across the southern states of North America. Some of the terrapins are only active during the day or when provided with light. They live on different foods such as rodents, plants, insects, eggs, and birds. Female terrapins tend to grow larger than males, while their babies grow very rapidly to that size of dinner plate.

This animal needs a lot of care since it is somehow delicate on the habitat. Terrapins are the most dimorphic, for instance the North America turtles. They usually mate in winter season whereby a female lays approximately 22 eggs, which hatch at the end of winter. The males reach sexual maturity at the age of 2 to 5 years while the female stays up to 6 years. When approached, they flee away because they are timid creatures.

They have no gills so they breathe in air for oxygen requirement. Statistically, terrapins are endangered creatures since their number has been waning low. This could be due to habitat destructions, death on roads, and drowning in crab traps. In some places, people consider them a delicacy. All the same, reliable organizations have come out across the world to support these little beautiful creatures.

Tortoise

Tortoises are practically entirely land-dwelling animals. They got stubby feet and they do not swim well as turtles and terrapins. They only visit water bodies to drink water or wash themselves, though they easily die in deep waters or in strong currents. Their bodies are not streamlined and are used to terrestrial life. They show off high domed shells and column-shaped feet with sharp claws, which help in digging in the ground.

The greatest distinction is that tortoises in many areas are herbivorous and commonly eat low-lying shrubs, weeds, fruits and many forms of vegetables. Unlike the turtle, the tortoise uses it shell for protection against hot weather, from predators, and other endangering conditions like the desert. Female tortoises use their front legs with sharp claws to dig their nest for laying eggs.

Conclusion

Both Turtle and Terrapin do not use teeth to crush their food since they have no teeth, they have very strong and powerful jaws with ridges adapted to crushing their food and their mouths are shaped like that of a birds beak. Turtles and terrapins are human-friendly since some of them are kept as pets in houses and even commercial places in aquariums. Both Terrapins and turtles crawl very slowly when on dryland while in water they swim very fast. They both use their shell to hide and when relaxing to avoid disturbances.


How do Gills Work?

By admin / October 1, 2017
Gills

Introduction

We often take our biological functions for granted without asking how or why they happen. Have you ever wondered, for example, why do we blink? Do you know why you feel a deep, intense pressure in your insides whenever you really get stressed over something? Usually, we have a vague explanation for how our body works and we leave it that.

Things get REALLY obscure however, when it comes to our knowledge of animals that are fundamentally different from us. The mechanics of underwater breathing are a complete mystery for the vast majority of people. How do fish breathe? What exactly are gills? Do all sea creatures have them? How do gills work? This article will give you all the answers to these questions and more.

What exactly are Gills?

Like all living animals, fish require oxygen in order to survive. The difference between them and surface animals is that they have developed gills instead of lungs to breathe underwater. This is due to how aquatic respiration requires a gas exchange in order to function properly, that effectively enables fish to remove dissolved oxygen from water and utilize it to survive.

Each gill is supported by an arch – a bony structure oriented vertically on the side of a fish, behind its head. These archs support a number of comb-like filaments, that extend out horizontally, and increase their surface area for oxygen exchange. For each gill filament, there is a number of branches called primary lamellae, which in turn branch out to secondary lamellae.

It is these secondary lamellae that absorb the oxygen from the water and transport it inside a fish's body. A gill, therefore, is an adapted organ that allows fish to  extract the oxygen out of of the water they are swimming in.

You will be surprised to learn that not all creatures that live in the seas have gills – as not all aquatic creatures are fish. As common as gills are in fishes and many other amphibious species, there's quite a number of species that lack them – for example, whales, dolphins and porpoises.

How Do Gills Work?

The exact mechanism of fish gills is quite complex and seems to vary slightly among different fish species. Generally, it works as follows: The fish lowers the floor of its mouth, widening the outer skin flap that protects the gills in order to inrease the water rushing in. When the fish raises the floor of its mouth back up, a valve of sorts is formed to keep the water from rushing out. The water is then transfered to the gills.

Then, the secondary lamellae of the gills extract the oxygen from the water while simultaneously releasing carbon dioxide out. The extracted oxygen then gets absorbed into the the fish's blood, which in turn gets pumped around the body by its heart.

The whole process is facilitated due to how the secondary lamellae of fish gills have really thin walls that allow gas to be more easily absorbed into the blood stream. If these walls were any thicker, it would had been nigh impossible for fish to efficiently absorb oxygen from water.

This is due to the much lower concetrations of dissolved oxygen inside water compared to those available in air. To put this into perspective, whereas ar is approximately 21% oxygen, or 210.000 parts per million, water only has 4 to 8 parts per million of dissolved oxygen available for the gills to extract. Naturally, underwater respiration has to be much, much more efficient in its oxygen absoprtion than the respective surface respiration process of lungs.

Do all Sea Creatures have Gills?

For the vast majority of fishes, survival without water is impossible: They can only stay alive for a few short minutes before dying due to lack of oxygen. On the flip side, however, aquatic mammals like whales, even though they spend most of their life underwater, are completely unable to breathe underwater and have to come to the surface in order to breathe.

This is because like all mammals, they have lungs and nostrils. They actually inhale air through a blowhole they have. Do you remember the iconic water spout they produce? That is basically the equivalent of a whale exhaling.

A word on gills and lungs evolution

Since fish first appear in the fossil record earlier than tetrapods, it is logical to assume that modern fishes bear the exact traits that our common anscestors did. According to the available evidence, gills were indeed present in the very earliest of fishes. However, lungs also seem to have evolved very early on. So what happened?

Research findings suggest that modern tetrapods used to have gills but lost them during the course of early evolution. In reverse, in many fish species, lungs evolved into the swimbladder – a gas filled organ that helps a fish control its buoyancy. Even more surprising, there exist some fish today that maintain their lungs – for example, the aptly called "Lungfish".

Conclusion

So, to recap, fish, much like humans, do require oxygen in order to survive. Thanks to their aquatic respiration system, they are capable of extracting all the oxygen they need from water – and are incapable of doing so outside of it, the way we do. Central to their breathing system are their gills – the fishy equivalent of our lungs.

Fish basically gulp in oxygenated water, forcing it through their gills and extracting all the available oxygen they can, before releasing the water and carbon dioxide back into the sea. Their heart then pumps the freshly oxygenated blood throughout their whole body.

What is amazing about the gill based respiration system is how massively more efficient than our own it is. Extracting the oxygen out of the water is thousands of times harder than extracting it from air, as the available oxygen is spread in much lesser quantities.

Next time your favorite pet fish drifts around your aquarium, gulping water in an out, you will now know exactly what it is that it's doing: Putting its gills to good use.

Page 3 of 12