Active Directory (or AD) can be described as a standardized and centralized network system that is deployed in automating networks. AD was developed by Microsoft for Windows-based domain networks; hence, the directory is included in all Windows server operating systems. What’s more, it involves quite a number of processes and services.
Initially, AD was designed to handle centralized domain management. It all started with Windows server 2008 and has since become the base for a wider range of directory-based services. A domain controller is referred to a server running Active Directory. It is the server that authenticates and authorizes.
AD is used in authenticating and authorizes users on computers that are registered on Windows domain networking, thus assigning and enforcing security updates on such computers. When you log onto a computer that is registered under Windows domain, the AD on the computer will check all submitted passwords and check if you are a system administrator or a visiting user. The AD will allow storage and management of information only at the admin level.
Active Directory services are linked with several other services, including:
Lightweight directory services
Rights and management services
Active Directory Domain Services, also known as ACDS, can be referred to as the backbone of every Windows domain network. It simply stores all information about members of a domain which include the users and the devices connected. The ACDS verifies credentials as well as grants or denies rights to use devices with Windows domains.
The domain controller may also be a cluster of different servers and it is the first thing protocol that will be contacted when the user has logged onto the device. Some other active directory domain services include encryption of file system, domain name services, exchanger servers, and SharePoint server.
Lightweight Directory Services is another service rendered under active directory services. Known as ADLDS, it is a lightweight implementation service that runs on identical API. This service does not require the recreation of sub-domains and one of its functions is to provide data storage facilities. Multiple ADLDS can be run on the same server. Certificate services are available on ADCS are on-premise public key infrastructure. This certificate service can be used to revoke and validate any public key certificate for internal usage within an organization.
Certificate services are used in encrypting files, email, and also used in virtual private networks, transport layer protocol, and other network traffic control systems. ADCS was released before Windows server 2008 and has been used to regulate certificate authentication on the Windows server.
Right Management Services is software information that regulates Windows server’s emails and web pages. This software makes use of form and encryption functionality in denying or limiting access to documents on Windows servers. All corporate emails, Microsoft word documents, and web operations on Windows servers will require authorizes to perform them.
The Logical structure of AD
Being a directive service, AD consists of some databases, as well as executable codes that the service requests. The executable part of the AD is the directory system agent comprises of several Windows services that process and run on Windows 2000 and newer versions.
The objects in these databases are accessed via LDAP and ADSI which are components of object model interface. Other essential components of AD are the API and Security Accounts Manager services.
The AD comprises of “objects” that are used in coding information and these objects are categorized into two: Resources and Security principals. Security objects in AD include printers, while security principal objects include groups and computer accounts. Each object within the AD represents an entity; however, the deployment of the objects can cause a significant disruption to the working of the AD. Fortunately, objects can be created and or deleted from the AD. However, this will require adequate planning.
Active Directory Levels
Active Directories also comprises levels—just as objects—these include the Trees, Forests, and domains. These are the logical divisions of an active directory network. Objects are usually grouped into domains within a deployment, while the objects of single domains are located inside a single database and the database can also be replicated. Domains are usually identified through their active domain names.
The domain in Active Directory is often referred to as the logical group of network objects (objects may include computer devices and users). The objects in the same domain must share the same database within an Active directory (AD).
A tree is referred to as a collection of more than one domain and at the top of the structure of the AD hierarchy, is the “Forest”. A forest is simply a collection of trees of common logical structure or configuration.
The forest is simply a security boundary within which users, groups, and computers can access different objects. Considering the physical structure, AD holds the definitions for all connections and it helps differentiate between low and high-speed network infrastructures.
An example of a low-speed network is the WAN or VPN, while the LAN is a high-speed network. The control of network traffic within the AD is handled by domain controllers. Any network that utilizes AD will usually come with multiple window server computers. It must be noted that domain controllers used in Active Directories must not be allowed to perform other software roles in order to avoid redundancy or slow performance. Domain controllers will allow multiple updates in different sections of the Active Directory.
Similarly, “Trusting” is a process whereby the domain controllers allow users on one domain to access some resources from another domain. When it comes to providing trust services, the AD many allow a user to access resources in certain domains but prevent the user from accessing resources from other domains (this is referred to as one-way trust). A two-way trust is a kind of trust where the AD will allow access to two main domains).
Most people often find it difficult to take X-ray photos by themselves because they get loads of reflections that can mess with their images. However, we are not talking about a chest X-ray, dental X-rays or those taken by an X-ray technician here. We are talking about fashionable X-ray photography.
And you certainly don’t have to be an X-ray technician to take this kind of X-ray pictures. All you need to do is familiarize with old fashioned equipment. X-rays work in similar way to some visible light rays and both have wave-like forms involving electromagnetic energy.
Human eyes cannot see X-rays because the eyes are only sensitive to wave forms of visible lights. X-ray machines work by directing its rays through soft tissues such as the skin and these rays bounce back when they meet thicker tissues inside the body, thus creating images of internal structure of the body.
X-rays are useful for so many things and, fortunately, you can do it by yourself. Most people will think that X-rays are only good for science and medical purposes only, especially in detecting diseases, fractures, and deformities. Those who are fashion-conscious, however, know that X-rays can be great in photography.
When used as X-ray photography, the photographer can make use of different forms of light in exposing what the ordinary light cannot see; hence, an everyday object can take on another dimension when X-ray photography is used. When you become creative with X-ray photography, you can perform many wonders. For instance, you can turn a beautiful doll into a scary zombie.
How to take X-ray photos by yourself
There are affordable X-ray machines you can find online and if you don’t have a budget to get new one, you can simply go for the refurbished on e-commerce websites like Amazon and eBay.
Make sure the product you are purchasing online are tested. You may also consider picking up a used or refurbished dental or medical X-ray machine.
If you want to be more adventurous, there are resources where you can learn how to make your own X-ray machine for less than $50. You may want to get advice from a doctor before you make your own X-ray machine or purchase one, as X-rays in the wrong hands can be harmful to the human body.
You can also make use of Sunprints, which are much safer and they work just like X-rays. Sunprints were created by a group of scientists at the University of Berkley. Sunprints are a collection of coated papers that makes use of sunlight exposure and then make use of water to develop the prints. These are excellently simple and they don’t expose the human body to the risk of cancer or other health hazards associated with prolong exposure to X-ray machines.
You can simply buy a Sunprints’ kit and then gather some objects, such as paper, dry bones, or bike sprockets of bikes and place them on a piece of paper.
Make sure they are exposed to the sun for about 5 minutes before rinsing the Sunprints in water and then hanging them flat to dry. You may want to get something neater; thus, you should look out for high contrast black and white film during photography.
Here are some steps you can follow to take X-ray pictures but keep in mind that you may need to have the actual final X-ray images scanned by a competent operator or make use of an ideal scanner. If you want to produce the X-ray images by yourself, then you will need to make use of the daylight sunshine except your camera has some sophisticated lightning system. You need to create a matt finish for your X-rays.
You should choose an overcast yet bright day while taping the X-ray to your window. Likewise, you must ensure that the pictures are taken on a tripod for maximum stability and make sure that you don’t use flash with daylight exposures.
Step #1: Make sure you position the camera level in such a way that the lens is centered precisely and in a parallel position with the X-ray device.
Step #2: Just in case the window is exposed to a scene that may interfere with your shots, simply place a taped sheet of paper to the window, in order to diffuse the light.
Step #3: Take a sheet of opaque black paper that is large enough to cover your X-rays and then make use of 6-8 inches of black paper on all sides. Make sure you cut a small opening on the black paper (exactly the same size as that of the X-ray), then simply tape this mask on your window to create a blockage against any other light.
Step #4: Tighten your X-ray close enough in such a way that the black matt creates a blockage against all other lights and images around the edges of your view. As a precaution, you can take some preliminary shots and check your images. You can also move the camera inwards just in case the viewfinder does not provide an accurate edge.
Step #5: Take several test shots and make sure you work with the white point on your camera, in order to achieve the best reproduction you can hope for.
Once the shots have been taken, make use of the “levels” command on your camera to neutralize the range of grays and try as much as possible to ensure that there are white and black dots. You can make your initial prints and experiment with different X-ray prints until you get the desired results.
When it comes to taking good X-ray shots, your initial shots may be difficult to get. However, once you are able to get it right, your subsequent X-ray photos should look so much better.
You need to ensure that you make use of the right equipment and create the best features (including lightning) and take note of the positions of your camera (distance and arrangement) in order to achieve the best possible results. Make sure you invest a decent amount in good quality camera and optimize the effects of your environment when taking X-ray pictures.
ATP, also known as “Adaptive Tuning Protocol”, is a data transport layer protocol in Internet network design. This Internet protocol helps conserve energy performance, especially within the Internet of Things (IoT). During transfer of Internet packets, there is a significant consumption of energy, especially on the battery power of network infrastructure sensor node and this issue can constitute a problem if not checked.
The overhead problem is normally caused by the regular update messages that are sent to the Internet service directories.
ATP, therefore, is the protocol used as an adaptive tuning resolution in between the sensor nodes and the resource directory, in order to adjust the number and frequencies of updates by checking the battery performance levels of the sensing node. This protocol can work in different modes for effectiveness.
Nowadays, it is believed that more than 3 billion devices rely on the Internet for data usage and by the end of the decade, it is expected that there will be over 50 billion devices on the planet. For this reason, the ATP will play a pivotal role, especially in ensuring that Internet services will be reached by all devices. Unless there is a mechanism put in place, the massive number of sensors that will be required to handle the growing demands for Internet services will be too much to handle.
The importance of the ATP within the Internet network transport layer
The ATP protocol within the transport layer of network infrastructure may provide numerous services, including the following:
Provide a connection-oriented communication, whereby it interprets connection as a data stream rather than dealing with the underlying connection models. This will allow the ATP to focus on classifying data in order to reduce overload.
Provide same order delivery, in which it allows data to arrive the same way they are sent. The network layer cannot guarantee that data will arrive the same way they are sent. This is definitely a desirable service within the network architecture especially when segment numbering is involved.
It offers a reliable system of network handling. It is believed that some packets of data may be lost while being transmitted from one end to the other. Loss of data packets may result from congestion in Internet network, and numerous errors. The ATP makes use of different error detection codes to ensure that data being transferred is not corrupted and thereafter will verify the receipt of data being sent by sending a message to the data packet sender. Lost and corrupted data can be re-transmitted via the ATP protocol, through the use of “Automatic repeat request”.
It provides an excellent flow control service within the network infrastructure. It provides this service by managing the rate of data transmission, in-between two nodes.
It ensures flow control by ensuring that the rate of data transfer between two nodes are managed effectively to ensure that fast message senders are prevented from transmitting too many messages more than what can be supported by the network. It does this by creating a “Data buffer,” which is intended to trigger a data overrun. This step can also be used in preventing data under-run and boost efficiency.
It helps prevent or avoid congestion. Within the transport layer of the network infrastructure, the ATP can help prevent or avoid data congestion by providing a traffic control entry into Telecommunication networks. This, in turn, will help prevent congestive collapse through the avoidance of the over-subscription to the processing of data between nodes. It can also handle this situation by reducing the rates at which data packets are sent.
For instance, a network may be kept in a redundant or congested state when there are too many automatic requests. This situation can be prevented by simply adding congestion avoidance to the flow of control. An example of congestion avoidance is “slow start” technique that will simply keep the bandwidth consumption at a very low level, especially at the beginning of transmission or after the transmission of the packets.
Multiplexing functions. These are specific functions in which different ports are provided with multiple entry points within singles. This simply means different recipients forwarding data to the same location can be distinguished from each other through the use of different entry points on the same port. This also means you can make use of more than one network at the same time.
The ATP is an essential component of network infrastructure transport layer that delivers data to the appropriate process within different host computers. The multiplexing of data from different processes of application will help in reducing redundancies in the formation of data packets, while the addition of source and destination port numbers in the header of the transport layers will ensure that communication is facilitated within the network infrastructure.
Though the ATP is not directly involved in some other processes such as the generation of error recovery codes, but it plays a prominent role in such functions by generating the repeat request protocols, which is necessary for the identification of the source of an error and possible solutions to such errors.
ATP is able to handle different errors because of the different codes attached to such errors; therefore, it takes little or no time to resolve errors by identifying such codes. This ensures that vulnerabilities and latency risks are reduced.
The ATP protocol of Internet network can be configured according to the size of the Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Local Area Network (WLAN). This means that the protocol is needed for smaller and wider networks. The reliability of ATP makes it easier for network administrators to implement several other protocols into a network. For instance, securing a network infrastructure becomes much easier when an effective ATP is deployed. With an effective ATP structure, networks would be less susceptible to phishing and some other vulnerable attacks.
Lice—also referred to as head lice or nits—normally appear as white or gray–brown in color and it can be found attached to some parts of humans or animals. The immature head lice usually have the brownish gray or white color, while the adult lice may look brownish or brown-black in color.
Head louse eggs are usually the size of a flake of dandruff and such eggs could be yellow or white and appear as oval in shape.
They are usually attached to the hair of humans and animals, especially the area closest to the scalp. The hair and scalp usually provide a warm temperature for the incubation of the lice egg.
Most nits are usually located close to the neckline or somewhere behind the ears or at the back of the head. They can be sometimes located in eyebrows or eyelashes but that is not common. The female louse is known to produce a sticky substance that ensures each egg is attached to the shaft of the hair and any egg that is located between ½ and ¼ distance from the scalp is an indication that it will hatch very soon, or they may simply be empty casings of the lice.
Once the lice have hatched, the immature nymph is whitish or grey-brown in color and it will develop 8 hook-like claws, as well as a body that is smaller than a pinhead. Most eggs laid by female lice will hatch within 6-9 days, while the nymph will become fully adult within 7 days after hatching.
Louse life cycle. The adult head lice usually measure around 1/8th of an inch and live for just 30 days on the average if it has continuous access to human blood. Adult lice that have no blood meal will usually live for around 1-2 days.
Most adult female lice are quite larger than male lice, and they can easily lay up to 8 eggs in different locations per day. Lice are usually darker when they are found in darker hair while those in blond hair will usually appear lighter in color.
Generally, head lice will feed on human blood and they also inject saliva into their host and they ensure they constantly feed on the blood of the host in order to prevent a blood clot from forming. This will eventually trigger itching, which is an allergic reaction.
When lice are not treated, there may be a secondary infection, whereby the scratching of the scalp becomes more intense and this may cause bruises and bleeding. Though the presence of lice can be very frustrating they are not dangerous and they do not transmit any disease.
Lice are usually transmitted from an individual to another through person-to-person contact and via the hair. It should be noted that common lice cannot fly, nor can they jump or swim; thus, the only way they can be transmitted is through head-to-head contact, especially via the hair. The infestation of head lice cannot be caused by greasy hair or poor hygiene; however, head lice can affect anyone regardless of hair length. Though head lice can only affect humans. However, certain species of lice may be found on some animals.
Research has shown that head lice may survive under water for several hours and it can be extremely difficult to remove them or wash them unless the hair is completely shaved and treatments applied. Head lice are known to use their claw-like bodies to attach themselves firmly to the scalp of the hair when they are washed.
Also, the addition of chlorine to swimming pools will not destroy head lice, no matter how concentrated such chlorine can be. When they spend much time in water, lice may gain more body weight as they swell up slightly.
Female lice are known to start laying new eggs some 9 days after their eggs have hatched and you may have to remove lice before they hatch in order to break their cycle and prevent them from spreading. Itching or “pruritus” is the most prominent symptom of a head louse infestation and this is mostly caused by the saliva released by lice during maturation. Not everyone will be allergic to head lice and, in many instances, the infestation can be asymptomatic.
In some cases, people can become extremely sensitive to the bites from lice and start feeling extensive itching, while others have developed tolerance to itching caused by lice, even after repeated infections.
Some other symptoms of lice, aside from itching, include crawling or tickling sensation in the hair, irritability, and difficulty in sleeping, and sores that result on the scalp, especially as a result of continuous scratching of the hair and scalp.
Lice may be difficult to spot on humans even on close inspection and this confusion often lead to a misdiagnosis of lice. Even when lice have been eradicated, the eggs may remain attached to the scalp. For this reason, the observation of empty shells or un-hatched eggs is the first physical diagnosis that must be conducted. While head lice can be visible to the eye, you may need a magnifying lens in order to detect crawling lice.
You may also need an aid in order to identify the presence of nymphs, in most cases. People often confuse the lice with dandruff; thus, making it difficult to eradicate them. Some people may also confuse eggs with dirt particles or hairspray droplets and don’t think they need head louse treatment.
The standard for identifying lice infestation is to identify a louse in the head physically. However, this may be difficult because lice are known to hide from light and then crawl quickly out of site. In order to make it easier to identify lice, you must make use of a fine-toothed comb, though this type of comb works best with wet hair but it can also work well in identifying and removing lice on dry hair.
LTE stands for Long Term Evolution and can be referred to as the standard for high-speed wireless Internet that is based on the EDGE/GSM and UMTS/HSPA technologies. LTE increases the speed as well as the capacity of the Internet with the use of a different radio interface alongside core improvements in network infrastructures.
LTE and 4G are usually referred to the same thing because they are the present and future of Internet technology. Every smartphone and wireless Internet device networks service provider is either.
Upgrading to LTE technology or promising their customers that the technology will be rolled out soon. LTE has brought some unprecedented fast transmission and download speeds and it has become the standard.
LTE was born out of the fact that the needs for more data consumption and download speeds have grown and, at a certain time, a tipping point will be reached where the demand for data will outgrow supply and LTE seems to be the only solution to this issue. LTE seems to be cheaper when compared to other technologies such as WIMAX and CDMA.
Likewise, LTE can be implemented rather quickly than the rest. The first public LTE technologies were released in Oslo, Norway and Stockholm, Sweden in 2009, after deliberations about its rollout. Today, LTE technology is virtually in every corner of the world.
It must be noted that 4G is different from LTE and the reason being that the standard placed on 4G is higher than LTE. For instance, the base for 4G is 100 Mbps, while the base for LTE is 1 Mbps. However, 4G is definitely more expensive to run than LTE.
How does LTE technology work?
LTE has changed the current method of moving data through Internet protocol. Rather for LTE to move small amounts of data like GSM and CDMA, it ensures that large packets of data are delivered and streamlined. It virtually removes the “speed bumps” of the road in order to ensure that Internet data zooms through quickly.
One of the main benefits of using LTE is that it will reduce the latency that hampers the transfer of data. GSM, which provides a much weaker data latency, makes use of the Time Delay Duplex (TDD), while CMDA technology makes use of the Code Division Duplex (CDD) technology to reduce data transfer latency – both CDD and TDD are only used for coding information that are transfer over airwaves and are not as effective as the latency reduction over LTE.
While GSM technology used in a basic smartphone has been improved to HSPA (High-Speed Packet Access), LTE is designed to facilitate the movement of data packets at even a faster rate.
LTE works through the integration of Digital signal processing (DSP), in order to adjudicate the transfer of data packets at a much faster rate. In summary, LTE can be described as a “turbocharger” for your GSM or CDMA.
LTE Bandwidth Breakdown
Now that most networks operators of GSM and other related services are upgrading to LTE technology and the fact that LTE is available for GSM and CDMA means that everyone can make use of it, regardless of the device being used. While LTE is just a system upgrade, frequencies and spectrum regulators still have the mandate to implement it or not.
All devices run at certain spectrum and frequencies, hence an ideal smartphone that operates on LTE will likely operate at different frequencies. Similarly, different countries do operate at different frequencies all across the globe, but a higher frequency of your device does not mean your network service is better. However, lower frequencies seem to be much better in rural areas where fewer people will require smaller bandwidths. A good scenario of this situation is the comparison between North America and Europe, as regards the use of LTE. While the United States has rolled out its LTE over the past few years, many European countries are just taking the first step.
LTE usually operates within the frequency spectrum of 700MHz to 2.6GHz. While a lower 700 MHz spectrum will carry good signals over a larger area, service providers will spend little on infrastructural changes because more people will be reached with such spectrum.
On the other hand, a 2.6 HGz spectrum will be faster but will reach fewer individuals. Likewise, significant resources will be needed to upgrade infrastructure for its usage. Most Internet and smartphone service providers still rely on the lower spectrum of LET for their services.
Frequency is just a specific channel, just like a band on a radio dial, while spectrum is a collection of different bands. Bands can just be of any size within a spectrum, while spectrum comprises of bands, bands comprise of frequencies. Spectrums are usually sold by appropriate organizations to individual companies that deploy LTE services and, if you want a bigger and wider network, you will have to purchase more spectrums.
Many companies now rely on spectrum options in order to improve their network and, recently, there has been an increase in the number of mergers, especially among smaller service providers, in order to purchase larger spectrums for their LTE services and increase profit. Larger companies that purchase smaller carriers are able to gain more frequencies as well as more subscribers.
LTE is becoming more accessible to users worldwide on daily basis, while carriers and service providers still adopt lower frequency options because of the lower cost of an upgrade and the reach of such lower spectrum to more people. Despite the fact that LTE will make you more productive, the cost of such option on your budget is bigger.
Upgrading those network towers to LTE will definitely cost money and service providers will have to recover revenue; hence, if you want more speed and more data, you have to spend extra.
One downside of LTE service is the fact that smartphone batteries will have to be upgraded to keep up with faster Internet speed. It is common to hear people say that their battery ran flat quickly. However, the more robust smartphones seem to be coping with such demands.
Lately, people seem to be getting a little more into the “techie life”. Whether it is to improve your geeky skills and join the armies of game and software makers or just to customize your system beyond setting a new desktop background, it is a great idea to learn some open source coding and open source software in general. Naturally, Ubuntu and Unix platforms offer the best environment.
If you’re just beginning in the world of coding and black terminals, you might find that vast darkness with that blinking cursor terrifying. But do not fret, it all comes naturally with patience, guidance and time to learn and perfect your skills.
And what best way to hone your skills than by practicing? Get on your Linux virtual terminal and acquire root access! Oh, but maybe you don’t have immediate access to a Linux environment, or maybe you’re a Windows or Mac user; so what about getting straight into the action with an Online Linux Terminal for practice?
Linux Basics Video Course
Easy to Find Training Consoles?
There’s no need for extensive packaged downloads or download bitcoins, no need to set up a bunch of libraries—it’s all there for you to log on your PC (or even your Smartphone!), so crack your fingers and get started.
Thankfully there are many websites that offer free online Linux terminals for practice, some of which even allow you to root access your computer.
And the best news ever for beginners that are eager to join the team, is that some of these virtual terminals certainly go the extra mile and provide you with guides or lessons on basic commands, coding, scripting, MySQL and more.
However, you can’t just practice with anything anyone. You need to work with the best to become the best. So, we’ve put up a list of the 5 best free and paid online Linux terminals which we will briefly describe with their respective pros and cons below.
5 best free and paid online Linux terminals for root access and practice
ONE – Webminal (with online Linux terminal for root access)
This is a popular online Linux virtual terminal for practice around the Internet and you can find it mentioned and described in a number of other places. There are a number of reasons why it’s so talked about.
The guys from Webminal have undoubtedly worked towards building a complete learning Linux experience right in your browser. Moreover, this is a strong platform with a customizable URL that offers a large variety of options for you to learn or delve deeper with your abilities.
But that’s not all! Webminal lets you interact with the Linux bash terminal window using Linux Ubuntu, CentOS and Fedora distributions. And here you can see the most important highlights of Webminal.
Free Key Features:
Capability to open multiple windows at the same time
Customizable colors and shapes
Broad list of available commands in the emulator virtual terminal
Free account with some restrictions where you can learn basic commands, scripting, awk, sed and MySQL through step-by-step lessons
Root file navigation
Create 1000 files
Execute 10 processes simultaneously
1 MB space to create scripts
Yes, we know 1 MB space sounds crazy.But that is more than enough to learn the commands and create scripts. However, if you want to create something more advanced, you would require the paid version.
Apart from the features you can access with a free account, there are some top-notch premium options you can enjoy if your intention is more than practice and you’re looking for online Linux terminal window root access.There are more options and you should definitely check out their website that supports additional cloud storage and additional premium-learning material. Here are some of the most important features:
Paid Key Features:
A restricted programming platform which allows you to save files for later use
A dedicated VM with root access with tutorials to learn specific administration options
And, of course:
Pros: Powerful with many options available and easy to use.
Cons: When typing in the virtual terminal, the characters might be slow to show up, leaving you “typing blindly”.
Does it sound amazing, yet? Well, don’t take our word for it and go check it out!
TWO – JS/UIX
A fun fact within this emulated UNIX shell is that you can play a game called “Invaders” when you feel that your hands tired of typing. But, let’s go to the important things…
Free Key Features:
Fast and straightforward
Supports around 55 commands
Overlapping type styles
Shell alike with command parsing variables, positional parameters
Virtual file system
Unlike Webminar, JS/UIX doesn’t offer much guidance for beginners or as many capabilities. However, it offers an easy-to-use and access interface, and it is still a pretty solid emulator to try shell commands when you have no access to a Linux or Unix platform.
Pros: Great performance speed and enough options to tamper with.
Cons: No color customization. Might feel outdated for users who like more modern-looking things.
Fully recommended for that extra practice you need with the different commands. Don’t wait—check it out for yourself!
THREE – VU
Now, this is an online Linux terminal for practice and reinforcement of your knowledge with Linux command lines. In this emulator, there are no distractions, just the lovely black screen supporting the basic and necessary Linux command lines, such as cp, cd, and mkdir.
You might notice some similarities (in terms of simplicity) with JS/UIX. Well, this terminal uses the same libraries but it’s much more simple. There are no special color schemes or big functions. Go down to basic, focus and practice away.
The best part is that it’s not connected to any network. It’s a totally virtual machine so you can fiddle with the commands and practice without being afraid of breaking anything.
Free Key Features
Basic command lines
Simple to use
Create and copy files
In this list, you might think this is the simplest online Linux terminal for practice, and you would be right in thinking so. This is because it is solely made for the purpose of learning and improving. It has just what is needed for beginner users to start roaming around the dark screen and practicing their Linux ABCs (basic command lines and such).
What’s more, if you get bored, you can just play a little Invaders or Snake and get excited about the things you may be able to do in the future if you keep it up.
Pros: Simplicity and performance.
Cons: Some quick learners might find the command list a bit limited.
Whenever you wish, go and warm those skills over here!
FOUR – Coding Ground
Now, this is a jewel for your bookmarks, and it’s free! Coding ground offers a good number of online IDEs and online Linux terminals for practice with different Linux distributions to choose from. Like Webminal, its stylish and customizable interface is a plus that welcomes all beginners with open arms.
Hey, wait! It’s not only about good looks, there’s also brains and power in this. You can open up multiple windows at once and control them with key functions, and you can choose your favorite from all the different distributions they have to offer.
Like its name states, you’re here to code, as well as compile, execute, and share your creations in this cloud environment. And, of course, don’t forget to practice to your heart’s content!
Free Key Features:
Multiple distributions to test: Ruby, CentOS, MySQL, IPython, and others
Good performance in your browser. No lag
Capability to open and control multiple windows at the same time
Basic command lines available for practice
Customizable looks and transparency levels
Practice, practice, and practice until you become the master! Then you can develop your coding skills supported by the cloud where you can save your progress.
And we’re not done yet! The website also offers a wide range of tutorials and videos you can exploit to improve your knowledge, and… you can even go mobile because there’s an app!
With the Tutorialspoint app you can have access to all the information from the tutorials available on this website. Learn the theory whenever you have the chance and come back to put those new skills to practice with this amazing online Linux terminal for practice.
Pros: Friendly interface. Good availability of commands.
Cons: There’s not really a special con for this one unless it doesn’t fit your specific needs.
FIVE – Codeanywhere (with online Linux terminal for root access)
Now, if you’re ready to go pro, this is a full IDE platform right in your browser. There are many features, a service that offers you a whole suite of components for your development starting steps among which it includes an online Linux terminal for root access and many cloud service options to manage your files and access them at all times.
This IDE platform can be accessed through the website for free after you successfully sign up and follow the instructions. This can take you up to 2 minutes. There you can select the most convenient for your project from the different cloud storages they offer you to set up your server.
The great thing about Codeanywhere is that you can gain access to a pre-made and customized development environment and start coding right away.
All of this without a single installation! You can SSH directly from the browser terminal to another server to compile your code, this allows you to take the weight off your computer and do all the developing in the cloud.
Let’s not waste more time and check out what’s free:
Key Free Features:
A built-in terminal prompt in the cloud
Capability to root from your browser to another server
Basic and advanced Linux command lines support
Customizable color schemes and layouts for your workspace
Capability to share your code with your friends or workgroup
Developing in the cloud instead of your computer through your browser.
This obviously seems like a huge deal with your online Linux terminal for root access, and there are more features to access with the paid service. Depending on the pricing, there are some corresponding benefits you can add to your Project. Let’s take a look at some of them.
Paid Key Features:
Premium support and attention
Additional FTP servers
Revision system which allows you to check previous revisions of your project and revert back if necessary
Unlimited number of shares so you can continue sharing your project
Pros: Powerful and fast performance.
Cons: Sometimes the cloud or container fails to be accessed when starting it. Settings are not saved on exit (shortcut keys, sidebar, etc).
So, that’s it for now! This is our selection of the 5 best free and paid online Linux terminals. Work hard and work smart towards enhancing your abilities and knowledge in this fiery passion-filled world of command lines and programming languages.
In this era, it is easier than ever to learn and put into practice whatever you want, so take this chance to broaden your horizons, be curious, get in there and start working on your projects with these great online Linux terminals for practice.
The best is out there, you only need to know where to look in. Stay in touch, we’re rooting for you!
SITECH – Sakunthala InfoTECH provides free shell accounts and web hosting. We do not have a service level agreement or guaranteed uptime. What we do offer is a shell that is not restricted (as much as possible) and offers the tools you want there!
…or something like this:
Our mission is to provide remotely accessible computing facilities for
the advancement of public education, cultural enrichment, scientific
research and recreation. Members can interact electronically with each
other regardless of their location using passive or interactive forums.
Further purposes include the recreational exchange of information
concerning the Liberal and Fine Arts.
Members have UNIX shell access to games, email, usenet, chat, bboard,
webspace, gopherspace, programming utilities, archivers, browsers, and
more. The Free Linux Console community is made up of caring, highly skilled people who operate behind the scenes to maintain a non-commercial INTERNET.
Understanding Free Command in Linux/Unix
free is a command which can give us valuable information on available RAM in Linux machine. But many new Linux users and admins misinterpret its output. In this post we will walk through its output format and show you actual free RAM.
Line 1: Indicates Memory details like total available RAM, used RAM, Shared RAM, RAM used for buffers, RAM used of caching content.
Line 2: Indicates total buffers/Cache used and free.
Line 3: Indicates total swap memory available, used swap and free swap memory size available.
Let us dig more in to these lines to better understand it as Linux user prospective.
Line 1:Mem: 8027952 4377300 3650652 0 103648 1630364
8027952 : Indicates memory/physical RAM available for your machine. These numbers are in KB’s
4377300 : Indicates memory/RAM used by system. This include even buffers and cached data size as well.
3650652 : Indicates Total RAM free and available for new process to run.
0 : Indicates shared memory. This column is obsolete and may be removed in future releases of free.
103648 : Indicates total RAM buffered by different applications in Linux
1630364 : Indicates total RAM used for Caching of data for future purpose.
Puzzled with buffers and cache?
What is the difference between buffers and Cache?
A buffer is a temporary location to store data for a particular application and this data is not used by any other application. This is similar to bandwidth concept. When you try to send burst of data through network, if your network card is capable of sending less data, it will keep these huge amounts of data in buffer so that it can send data constantly in lesser speeds. In other hand Cache is a memory location to store frequently used data for faster access. Other difference between a buffer and a cache is that cache can be used multiple times where as buffer is used single time. And both are temporary store for your data processing.
Line 2: -/+ buffers/cache: 2643288 5384664
2643288 : This is actual size of used RAM which we get from RAM used -(buffers + cache)
A bit of mathematical calculation Used RAM = +4377300
Used Buffers = -103648
Used Cache = -1630364
Actual Total used RAM is 4377300 -(103648+1630364)= 2643288
Then why my Linux machine is showing 4377300 as used RAM. This is because Linux counts cached RAM, Buffered RAM to this used RAM. But in future if any application want to use these buffers/cache, Linux will free it for you. To know more about this, visit this site.
5384664 : Indicates actual tothttps://web.archive.org/web/20160515183044/http://www.linuxatemyram.com/al RAM available, we get to this number by subtracting actual RAM used from total RAM available in the system.
Total RAM = +8027952
actual used RAM = -2643288
Total actual available RAM = 5384664
So from today on words don’t complain that Linux ate your RAM, its our understanding of free command output which is the culprit and the teacher who thought us Linux. If any one asks what is the free RAM available, we have to give this number(5384664) instead of first line number(4377300) for free RAM available in your machine.
Line 3: Swap: 15624188 608948 15015240
This line indicates swap details like total SWAP size, used as well as free SWAP.
Pennsylvania is a region that is so diverse in wildlife. According to recent statistics, there are some 71 native mammal species found in the state, but 11 of these have become extinct. Some of the most popular mammals here are; The mountain Lion, Wolverine, Gray wolf, Lynx, bison and Moose. By definition, wildlife should include wild mammals, and wild birds( including game and non-game species) According to the Pennsylvania Game commission, there are some 480 species of wild mammals and birds in the state of PA, and out of these, there are some 414 wild bird species alone, and 284 of these are regular habitants of the local habitat, while the remaining 129 are frequent visitors to the state.
Many of the wildlife mammals in PA are scarce or going into extinction, however , most of the bird species are thriving within their natural habitats. The Peregrine falcon is one of the most prominent bird species in PA, and it is often referred to as a “Raptor bird”, or bird of prey. The adult of this bird species do possess blue-gray wings with some darkish-brown back, while their faces are predominantly white. Falconry birds are quite popular in PA, and they are a group of raptors that mostly hunt for other animals for survival.
Fish species of PA include; Chain pickerel, Crappie (black and white), blue gill, Pumpkin seed, walleye, Yellow perch, sun fish (red breasted), Muskellunge, American shad, rock bass, and trout. The availability of these species will depend on the weather conditions or season.
Great Horned owl
Flowers , plants and trees contribute immensely to the survival of wildlife in PA, and there are hundreds of these species either existing or going into extinction. Commonest tree plants include; Red maple, silver maple, River Birch, Bitternut Hickory, Eastern cottonwood, Oak(willow , pin or black), and Pawpaw. Commonest shrubs include ; Buttonbush, silky dogwood, Ninebark, and Rosebay. Commonest flower plants include; Sneeze weed, Turtlehead, Boneset, Closed Gentian, Summer Phlox, Cardinal flower, and Purple stem aster.
Humming birds –they are among the smallest birds in the world, and they have iridescent feathers. They are named Hummingbirds because they flap their wings very fast that they create humming sounds.
Bronze Frog (Lithobates clamitans) – They got their names from their skin colour. They are mostly found in swamps and stream sides.
Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus)-this is an amphibious frog belonging to the Ranidae family that are also referred to as “True frogs”. It is also referred to as African bull dog or pixie frog. They are quite large and aggressive in nature.
Grey tree frog (Hyla chrysoscelis) – This is a small arboreal frog that is about 2 inches long. It has a predominantly grey or brown colour, with some blotches located on its back. They have granular skins and large toe pads.
Northern Cricket Frog (Acris crepitus)- these are a group of frogs belonging to species of hylid frog that are native to the United States. Even though , they belong to the tree frog family but they are not arboreal.
The Pickerel frog- This is a small frog with square designs that look like hand-drawn objects located on the frog’s dorsal surface. These are large frogs that measure between 2 and 4 inches in body length. They also have 2 rows of dark-squarish spots on their backs.
Spring Peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) – this is a small chorus frog and it is so called by this name because of its chirping call that usually marks the beginning of the spring season. The frog grows to about 1.5 inches in length.
Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus)- this is a type of frog that can resist adverse weather conditions especially in winter season when it freezes and thaw literally when temperatures fluctuate. They do have shades of red or brown colours on their skin.
Sphinx Moths aka Hawk Moths- these are a family of moths that are also referred to as “Hornworms”. They are mostly seen in the tropics. They have narrow wings and streamlined abdomens that help them adapt to rapid flight. They normally over in the air while feeing on nectars of flowers, and they can be sometimes mistaken for humming birds.
Broad-headed Skink (Eumeces laticeps)- This is a broad-headed skink that belongs to a family of lizards and they are endemic to South Eastern parts of the United States. These are the largest skinks in the South Eastern part of the country and they usually have orange to red heads with greenish-brown bodies.
Eastern Fence Lizard(Sceloporous undulatus)-these are medium size species of lizard that are mostly found along the forest edges , rock piles, stumps and rotting logs. They have spiny bodies, which mean their skin is rough, with some pointed scales located on their backs and often possess gray to brown colours.
Five-lined Skink (Plestiodon fasciatus)- these species of lizard are also referred to as “Eumecs” and they can grow from 5 to 8.5 inches in length. They are characterized by shorter legs alongside a streamlined body. The exterior part is characterized by a mix of golden brown, black, orange and the tail has a shade of blue.
Italian Wall Lizard(Podorcis sicula)- this lizard is also referred to as ruin lizard or Turkey lizard , it is referred to as a habitat generalist because it can be found in many habitats but mostly prefer a structural complex habitat. The lizard is characterized by shades of green and brown colours.
Northern Coal Skink(Plestiodon anthracinus anthracinus)-This lizard has been in existence since the 1890s and it is endemic to the Northern American region. It can grow to between 5-7 inches in body length, and consumes predominantly insects.
Porcupines- This is a rodential animal characterized by a body coat filled with spines- these ensure that the animal is protected against predators. This is the prickliest of rodents in the world today, and there are about 2 dozens of porcupine species. Porcupines can weigh as much as 30kg, however they are considered to be slow animals.
Quite a number of species of Birds, Reptiles, amphibians and Fish species are going into extinction in PA and greater efforts are needed more than before to save these animals. Some of the most endangered species of PA are;
Northern Book Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor)- this is a special species of jawless fish that are non- parasitic in nature. Adults can measure between 8.6 and 16.6cm in body length and are mostly found in lakes.
Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)- This is a small fish native to North America. They are primitive bony fishes with body surface comprising of five rows of bony plates. They are mostly found in rivers and estuaries.
Lake Sturgeon-(Acipenser fulvescens)- also known as rock sturgeon, is a temperate fresh water fish that can live inside water depths of between 15 and 30 feet.
Atlantic Sturgeon- This is one of the oldest fish species in the world, and they feed primarily on crustaceans, Mollusks and worms. They can grow up to 14 feet in body length.
The Spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus)- This is another primitive fresh water fish species that possess spits on their entire bodies ( including fins ) and these spots make them look darker than other gar species.
Bug turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii)- The bug turtles are large turtles known for their ability to swim fast in water and also live on the land. They are primitive species of turtles that have lived for millenniums.
New Jersey Chorus Frog (Pseudacris triseriata kalmi)- they grow till 0.75-1.5 inches in length , and they are predominantly found in woodland areas. They are small tree frog with dark stripes on their backs.
Coastal plain leopard frog(Rana Sphenocephala) – Got its name from the dark brown spots that remind you of a leopard skin. They do not extend beyond 4 inches in growth, and their natural habitats are being threatened by pollution.
Mississauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus Catenatus)- this is a stout-bodied rattlesnake that grows to between 50-70cm in length, and it is venomous .It only bites as a form of self-defense and it is characterized by a triangular head and a tail that makes a buzzing sound when it shakes.
Kirtlands snake (Clonophis Kirtlandii)-This is a non-venomous snake characterized by keeled scales on its body. It is predominantly found in wetlands, wet pastures and floodplains.
Bald eagle- Tis is a bird of prey that is also referred to as the sea eagle. It has a distinctive brown body alongside a white head and tail – these make it easy to identify them.
Black Tern- This is a small tern bird mostly found in inland water areas. The bird consumes insects and fishes.
Loggerhead shrike- This is referred to as a passerine bird and it is a predatory song bird that consumes predominantly large insects.
Osprey – also known as fish eagle or sea hawk, is a large predator that measures up to 60cm in body length and about 60cm across its length.
Peregrine falcon- also known as the duck hawk, this bird has an incredible flight speed of 390km/hour, and it is characterized by some blue-gray wings and dark brown backs.
Thousands of species of Bees, Wasps , Hornets and Insects are found widely distributed in PA, the commonest ones include the following;
Dolichovespula adulterina (Parasitic Yellowjacket)- This is a genus of social wasps with long faces and create nests in aerial regions. They are very destructive in nature and their activities can be difficult to control.
Dolichovespula arenaria (Common Aerial Yellowjacket)-This is one of the most widely distributed wasps in PA, it feeds mostly on leaves.
Dolichovespula maculata (Bald-faced Hornet) This is one of the most widely d- also known as yellow hornet, this is a predatory wasp characterized by bald face. They create their nests in low hanging tree branches and building corners.
Dolichovespula norvegicoides (Northern Aerial Yellowjacket)- This is a small-size yellowjacket wasps characterized by golden-light yellow wings and a mix of black and yellow body colour.
Eastern Cicada Killer- often referred to as Cicada hawk, this is a large digging wasp that often lives in solitary regions. They can measure between 0.2 and 2 inches in body length and they are mostly active during the summer.
Ichneumon Wasps- these are important parasitoid wasp that are highly diverse in nature. They measure between 0.12 and 5.12 inches in length. The larvae of this wasp live in the host and feeds on it.
Polistes dominula (European Paperwasp)- This is one of the most well-known social wasp species in PA, and its diet is more diverse than most other wasp species , hence the species can survive in shortage of resources.
Polistes fuscatus (Northern Paper Wasp)- This is a golden colour wasp with a flat body and it usually nest around human settlements. These species of wasps are known to be insectivorous because they can kill other insects, including caterpillars.
Vespa crabro (European Hornet)- This is the largest social wasp in PA, and it remains the largest Vespine in North America. The wasp can measure between 2 and 3.5cm in length and they usually have brown and yellow stripes on their bodies. These wasps are regarded as pests because of the nuisance they constitute to humans.
Vespula acadica (Forest Yellow Jacket)- This is a big hornet, characterized by bright yellow trunk or predominantly black trunk. They are more active in early autumn season, and they are more active in the forest where they serve as food for insect-eating mammals.
Vespula alascensis (Common Yellowjacket)- This yellowjacket is mostly known for its very thin and defined waist. This yellowjacket is known to inflict the most excruciating sting and disposes its venom into its victim. They are quite beneficial because they are useful for cross-pollination. They can be found mostly in pastures, woodlands, lawns and parks.
Vespula consobrina -(Blackjacket)- these are wasps known for their pale yellow posterior colours, they have a bald and white colour face and they are mostly known to scavenge instead of hunting for food.
Vespula flavopilosa (Downy Yellowjacket)- This is a small yellowjacket genus known for delivering very sharp sting and they hunt for food rather than scavenge.
Vespula maculifrons (Eastern Yellowjacket)- These yellowjacket wasps create subterranean nests and they are consider pests because they prefer to create their nests in recreational centers and human buildings.
Vespula vidua (Ground Hornet )-These are peaceful insects that only sting when disturbed. They are slightly bigger than the green hornet and they are ground burrowing in nature.
Pennsylvania has a wide distribution of prey birds, that are also known as raptors. The commonest ones are;
American Kestrel- this is the commonest and smallest falcon bird in Pennsylvania. It can be found perching on open fields , and Telephone wires and it preys on insects, and small reptiles and amphibians.
The Bald Eagle-This is also known as the white tail eagle, or sea eagle. It has a distinctive brown body and white head, which makes it easier to identify.
The Barn owl- this remains the most widely distributed species of Owl in Pennsylvania, and North America as a whole. They have medium size bodies with heart shaped face and no ear tuffs.
The Barred owl- This is a very large owl that is also referred to as the hoot owl because of its distinctive noise or call. Often times, the owl is referred to as eight hooter, wood owl, rain owl, and stripped owl.
The black vulture- This is also referred to as the American black vulture , known to possess a poor sense of smell, however, it follows other species of vultures to carcasses . This vulture has broad wings and shows quick flaps when taking low-level flights. The black vulture can consume virtually all kinds of foods, these include fruits, fish, fresh meat, and carcasses of animals.
Golden eagle- This is one of the best birds of prey in Pennsylvania, and it remains the most widely distributed species of eagle . This bird is capable of tucking is wings and then swoop on preys at incredible speeds.
Great horned owl- this is also referred to as the tiger owl or the hoot owl. This one ne of the most adaptable owls in North America, and it is a large owl recognized through the feather tuffs located on its head. In mind winter, he deep hoots from these owls can be heard throughout the forests.
Harris hawk- This is also referred to as the Bay wing hawk or dusky hawk. It is a medium to large hawk bird of prey that has distinctive brown colour feathers.
Long eared owl- The long eared owl is part of a larger group of owls referred to as “typical owls”. They derive their names from their typical ear tuffs that are quite long. The owls do possess long and thin bodies.
Osprey- this is also referred to as the fish eagle, sea hawk or river hawk . This is a fish-consuming bird that is widely distributed in Pennsylvania. It is a very large raptor that can grow up to 60cm in length and 180cm in wing length.
The Peregrine falcon- also known as the Peregrine or the duck hawk. The adult species do have blue-grey wing colours, alongside darkish back, plus a buff colour under-belly.
The Red shouldered hawk- This is a medium size hawk has a dark-brown upper region with dull or bright red colour running through its shoulder down to the belly. This hawk makes so much noise that it is often heard before it is seen. It is also one of the most gorgeous birds in Pennsylvania.
The Red tail hawk- This is one of the three species of hawks referred to as “Chicken hawk”, even though it rarely preys on chickens. It is characterized by broad and rounded wings, plus a short and wide tail. The broad wings are capable of supporting the bird’s flight in low and high altitudes and it make some chapping noises constantly.
The Rough legged hawk- also known as rough legged buzzard, is a large bird of prey that can come in medium to large body size. The name of this hawk comes from its feathered legs and it usually creates its nests on cliff sides with lots of sticks. The Rough legged hawk is capable of hunting in different situations, it can hunt on hills, and mountains and also on the ground, especially on inside the water.
Saw-whet owl- This is a small owl that is found widely distributed in Pennsylvania. It has a cat-like face with no tuff in the ears. The head is round and the bird normally sits still when perching. This small bird have poor hunting skills, however, its fragile body helps the animal to penetrate through small holes when looking for food.
Screech owl- This owl belongs to the genus known as “megascops”. It is a short stocky bird with almost zero neck. The birds can come in predominantly gray or reddish-brown colours. Despite the name, these owls don’t actually screech, rather they possess some soft thrilling sounds . They are small and nocturnal woodland birds that predominantly feed on insects, and smaller amphibians.
The Sharp shinned hawk- This is a small hawk, with males growing smaller than the females. This hawk is also one of the most migratory birds in Pennsylvania. They are known as part of a group of “Accipiter” or bird hawks. The male species can measure up to 27cm in length and can weigh between 87 and 114g.
The short eared owl- as expected, this owl has very short ears. They are identified by the presence of tufts of feathers that resemble those of mammalian ears. The ear tufts may or may not be visible from afar, however, one will need to take a closer look to confirm the presence of such features. The short eared owls belong to the genus – Asio.
Turkey vulture- also referred to as the Turkey Buzzard, this special type of vulture is widely distributed in Pennsylvania and it remains the most widely spread “new world vultures”. It has a predominantly dark colour with long wings that allows it to soar over high mountains. This vulture has an excellent sense of smell that allows it to smell food even from afar. This vulture does not have a voice box , hence it may produce a low-pitch dull sound . The vulture can extend by as much as 25-32 inches in length, and may weigh between 0.9 and 2kg. The large wings can measure between 1.6-2m in length.
Disclaimer: We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites. Amazon and the Amazon logo are trademarks of Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates.