7 Best Word Cloud Generators – Free Word Map Maker Assignment Reviews

By sgadmin / March 10, 2017

What is a Word map or Word cloud?

World maps are created to form distinctive categories of countries across the word, this means there must be a problem of projection or a representation of a unique identity across different countries of the world. With a world map is easier to identify a country with a common information being passed across. The world map can be used to show a distortion on the earth surface, hence it can be used in reflecting some diverse technical goals on the map.

Word maps often focus on specific features such as Political components,  you may need a global knowledge to construct an ideal world map, and when political elements are being used in constructing a world map, territorial boundaries and human settlements must be distinctively classified. For instance, when you highlight physical world maps, you must show the distinctive rock types, soil types, underlying rock fault lines, and sub-surface structures. One can conclude that World cloud or world map is mainly designed to categorized countries on the world based on a geographical, political or other patterns.


What is a Word map or Word cloud?
How to make a Word Cloud
Examples of World clouds being used as forms of arts
Examples of world clouds
World map template, Generator and Examples
Word cloud assignment template- tips and ideas for teachers and educators
Free word cloud template assignment and assessment for teachers and parents
Your word cloud template options
Avoiding mistakes
Other template settings
7 Word Cloud and Word Map Generator Reviews
Wordle review (free)
ABCYA Word Cloud Review (Premium)
Tagul Word Cloud Review
Word Cloud generator
Tag Cloud generator
The Image Chef Word Mosaic Generator
Are word cloud , word shapes, word splash and word collage the same?
Want to Make Your Own Word Map or Word Cloud Software Program?


7 Word Cloud and Word Map Generator Reviews

A word cloud generator is expected to be simple and effective enough even for beginners to start using it immediately.  Slow learners must be able to use the user interface of the word cloud template easily,  and they should be able to make corrections accordingly.

Wordle review (free)

Wordle word cloud is one of the most popular and most sophisticated word cloud tool you can consider, and what makes it even more popular is the fact that it is free. This word cloud tool can be used effectively as a visual learning program.  It can be customized according to your preferred colour, font, alignment, style and many other features. There seems to be no limit to the number of categories for which you can change the outlook of your word cloud projects here. Wordle can be used to create just anything, from tutorials to election campaigns and lesson notes. Wordle is simple because it generates words based on the texts you provide, and it comes with added features that allow you create word clouds in different forms.  To make use of this free tool, simply lo unto the website and click “create” and a new screen will appear with all necessary options.

ABCYA Word Cloud Review (Premium)

This is one of the best word cloud tool for the kids and beginners in general. It helps them discover their  creative skills quickly, and it is very easy to use.  This tool is also available on the internet for free and you can use it directly on the website, it must be noted that this tool has a very kid-friendly user interface. In order to make use of this tool, the minimum number of words you can input is three at a time, if you don’t, the tool may not work properly.

The premium version of this word cloud tool comes with even more sophisticated features that will further enhance the usability of the program. One of the premium features you can find here a preloaded database of different figures you can use as a base or foundation for arranging and aligning your words. You can also upload your own base image upon which you can then align and arrange your words.

Tagul Word Cloud Review

Tagul word cloud is another top word cloud generator relied upon by millions of people all over the world. What makes this word cloud tool unique is that it allows you to upload your image and use it as the foundation or layout for your word cloud design. To use Tagul, you will have to sign up on the website and once you are signed in, you will receive a notification that contains a link that you are expected to click in order to start creating your own word cloud.  You can make use of the sent URL as well as texts or even select the options provided and then click on “Generate”. You can also make changes in the appearance, colours, and fonts on the word cloud.


This is a unique word cloud generator in the sense that you can use it to visualize the frequencies of certain words for any content, and you don’t have to sign up to make use of the tool. One other advantage of this tool is that you will get a clean cloud that will help you conduct well organized visual training .all you have to do is visit TagCrowd, then you can copy and paste texts or make use of a URL to upload a file in order to generate your word cloud.

Once you have chosen all other options, you will have to adjust your options, for instance, you need to choose the language, as well as the minimum /maximum amount of each word that must be present in the word cloud.  Once you have completed the whole thing, you can simply click on “Visualize tab” in order for your tag cloud to be generated. Simply click on “Save as” and then choose the format for which you want the piece of word cloud to be saved.

Word Cloud generator

Word Cloud Generator has numerous add-ons as well as quick-access features that allows you to use different emerging themes for different word cloud projects. It also helps you determine which best category your project can fit in, it comes with a Google doc add-on that allows you to integrate your word cloud projects into Google, and you also have access to control the number of words you can use .there is a feature that allows you to drop any word and make use of a word count table when necessary.  Word cloud generator is quite simple in every way, it allows you to make use of filters and even import words from your computer or internet, thus you wouldn’t find it hard to locate the right words for your word cloud.

Tag Cloud generator

Tag Cloud generator has been regarded as one of the easiest  word cloud generators around because it makes use of an in-built HTML platform, and it is quite easy to use, assisting beginners to perform word cloud projects effectively in no time.  This is a completely free cloud generator that allows you create deluxe word cloud projects instantly. The HTML platform makes it easier for admin, teachers or parents to accept as many word cloud projects as they can and edit them. Tag cloud generator can also be used in creating word shapes, especially when the advanced form of the software is used.

The Image Chef Word Mosaic Generator

This word cloud generator may seem like an amateur tool, but at the end of a project it will give you an impressive result. If you want to change your Facebook, Twitter or Instagram traffic without wasting much time,  or effort, you can rely on this tool for a fast result. Once issue here is that the tool normally leaves a watermark on the world cloud final result that is generated which some people may not like. If you don’t mind the little watermark, you can rely on this tool for an excellent result.

Examples of World clouds being used as forms of arts

General overview on how to create your world cloud using a software

A personalized father’s day world cloud  can be a perfect gift for the fathers especially when it is used in communicating one’s feelings. The steps behind this world cloud are easy, and to make it even easier, you can make use of a reputable world cloud software, most of these software work similarly. All you have to do is to download and install the software or app and then click on “Create” and this will take you to a new page. The next step is to choose the shape of your world cloud( take note that all choices, including shape, color, theme, font, orientation, and layout) of the world cloud are located on the left side of the software home page. Make sure you choose a world cloud shape that daddy will love to display all year round, for instance, you can use the shape of a snowman, or simply choose the shape of an handprint. Some women would prefer to make use of heart, tree or love shape because they seem to appear much nicer.  If you prefer the classic vertical and horizontal world cloud shapes, you can check the bottom of the software for the button.

Once you have decided the shape you want, simply click on it and the shape on your screen will automatically change.  Next step is to choose the colour theme for your font and letters ( these are the colours in which your words will appear). As you click on the colours, the shape of the letters will automatically change to indicate what they will look like eventually. The software will display some rectangles and in each of them you will see how the words in your world cloud will look like, while the outer region of each rectangle will be the colour of the background. If you are simplistic in nature, you may choose the simple white and black colour themes, they look awesome too.

Once the colour theme and shape has been chosen, your next step is to choose the font size of the letters. You may want to stick with 1-3 fonts and then click on the side box beside these fonts and you will have a preview of what the fonts will be.

Once you have chosen the font, your next step is to choose how you will like the words to be aligned. To do this, you simply need to click on the “Orientation” button. You may have all the words to be vertical or horizontal or a mixture of both, and after the alignment of the words, the final step is to personalize the words. The software provide a feature referred to as “Loads”, located on the left side of the sidebar, then you will see a screen popping up where you can type all the words that you want in your cloud.

Just before you create a father’s day world cloud for instance, you may want to ask him certain questions in order to make use of the right words in the cloud, these include; his nicknames, hobbies, favourite sports, what he is good at doing, favourite game, and many more. Once you are done, simply click the “Submit” button and the world cloud will appear.

Examples of world clouds

#1 Father’s Day

#2: Mother’s Day


#3 Birthdays

#4 Anniversary

#5 General Art

#6 Kids Room

#7 Office Décor/Business Mission /Vision/Values

#8 Classrooms

#9 Others

World map template, Generator and Examples

Making world cloud can be fun especially when performed with kids as projects,

Most world map or world cloud templates and generators work the same way, especially with the following steps;

If you want to make a world cloud in different shapes for instance ( for instance, the map of the United States of America), you can follow these simple steps;

Step #1: Visit the website of the template (you don’t have to download any software as there are good online templates that help you create world cloud for free). You need to check if the website will work for your type of browser ( chrome, window explorer, safari or Firefox).

Step #2: Click on “Create” and you will be directed to the design page.  From the left side of the design page, you may want to start with the shape of your design. The design home page should look like the image below;

The arrow on the left box should indicate the places to click in order to bring up the choices you need to make your world cloud choices.  Considering the picture below, there are so many shapes you can choose these include the shapes of animals.

Step #3:  Once the shape has been chosen, next you can click on the “Colour” and these are the colours the words will end with. If you look at the image above, you will notice that the colour inside the inbox is different from outside, this is exactly what will happen as you write on the world map. You need to change the colour after you complete the writing of a word.

Step #4: Choose the font.

Once you have chosen the shape, and colour, your next step is to choose the font of your letters. For the best results you may want to practice with as many fonts as you like, considering the fact that you will have several different words on the world cloud. You should be creative with your fonts, for instance, you can choose a font with “all capitals” and the choose fonts that mixes capital letters with small letters. Some of the most interesting fonts you may consider include; Comical, Euphorigenic, and Boston Traffic. It’s going to look a whole lot nicer if you choose a font with no serifs and match it with another font with one serif.

Step #5: Align your contents

Now that you have sorted out the shape, colour, and font, you should now align the words on the world map. From the left side of the home page, simply click on the “Orientation” option. Aligning your words should make the world cloud more fun, you can use vertical or horizontal alignments or you can simply mix them together to create even more fun.

Step #6: Personalize your words

Personalizing your words will be the last step to take when completing your world cloud.  Rom the left side of the sidebar, simply click on “Load”, and a new screen will simply pop up and from here you can simply type the words you want to write to personalize the contents of the world map. If you type in the words multiple times, they will show up more on the world cloud, Once you have completed the entire world map, simply click on “Submit” button and you will see the final world map on the final screen, just as the one shown below;


Please take note that when you spin any of the features (font, theme, colour, shape or orientation), some of the choices you already made will be changed as well, hence you need to ensure that you preview your final world map before you hit the “Submit” button, and your world map will be automatically downloaded.

Some software can allow you to save your world cloud in a flash drive, and then  you can retrieve them and print them on T –shirts, cardboard papers,  frame it or even make it into a card or cut it out and then add it into a 3D collage.

Word cloud assignment template- tips and ideas for teachers and educators

The word cloud assignment template is a Parent and teacher assignment  template guide that can be used to evaluate word cloud assignments. This template will simplify the way teachers and parents award mark or grade such assignments. This template guide can be downloaded directly online. Here are some tips for parents and teachers to make use of word cloud assignment templates more effectively.

  • Make use of different colours and sizes to denote the levels of importance of different words within the word cloud, this will help your students to lean the significant ideas quickly and more effectively.
  • Make use of word cloud to create your course outline instead of the conventional method of outlining courses. Make sure the key points of your lesson plans are highlighted with bold texts or vibrant colours and unique shapes, likewise, make use of unique fonts and characters to illustrate the learning goals and objectives of your course.
  • Encourage your learners to make use word cloud that will reflect their learning goals and objectives. This will help them personalize their goals and experience hence they can become more effective in learning.
  • You can access the leaner’s knowledge by encouraging them to create word cloud after each module, let them illustrate whatever they have learnt, and include highlights of the interesting and difficult parts. This will help you discover whether they are making use of the skills they are being taught.
  • Facilitate peer-to-peer feedback as well as group collaboration by making word cloud illustrations part of class presentations.


Free word cloud template assignment and assessment for teachers and parents

As a teacher or parent, you will definitely want a word cloud template that can be customized effectively in order to facilitate the teaching and transfer of information to pupils. The template you want to use must also have a section where the assignments and all word cloud activities can be evaluated and marked accordingly.  Here is a free template guide for parents and teachers;

Your word cloud template options

The commonest options you can fund on a word cloud template will contain;

  • The Visual appearance, and
  • Text processing

From the image below the Visual appearance comprises of three main sections, the word cloud size ( these could be small, medium and large), the Maximum number of words ( this could be 50 at most), and the font.

The second part is the text processing option, this feature will allow you to decide whether you want to capitalize some or all the words, use or ignore stop words, and use or ignore numbers. You may also want to choose from the other options such as bold, Italic and shadow. At this point it will be important to encourage your students to practicalize with all options available and then settle for the ones with the most visual appeal.


Avoiding mistakes

Take note that you must avoid repeating words when using this template, hence you must avoid clicking on the repeat boxes just click on “enable” on specific amount of words, you can simply check this in the “layout” option as shown below;

Take note of the Upper, lower and Capitalize options at the bottom of the template, these options can either be chosen during the development of the word cloud or after you have put all the words. Using all these features at the beginning may prolong the time for the completion of the word cloud, hence you may want to wait until the end to adjust all contents accordingly and save more time.

From the top of the template ( just below the Word), you can see the options; Import words, add, remove and clear words. This template will allow you to import words from anywhere on your computer or from the internet (if you are connected), please take note that words imported will take the initial fonts, size and other features from the original source, hence they must be re-adjusted to fit your word cloud.

Other template settings

It is important to make use of certain setting options when completing your word cloud. These settings are available on your template and they allow you to perform certain operations such as;

  • Filtered words,
  • Filtered punctuation characters, and
  • Space replacement.

All these features can help you reduce the number of times spent in choosing your words, and eliminate all unnecessary punctuation marks that can help save even more space.

Now that you have a complete template for generating a word cloud, as a teacher, you may want to use this guide to help your students create their own word cloud, making use of every feature available from the template. You may use the template to award marks based on the number of features the students use( some students shy away from using certain features because they are not comfortable with such).

From your evaluation of student word cloud assignments, you should be able to detect areas where they are having difficulties ( for instance, word filters can give some students problems), you can then work on how to train them to use such difficult features on the template.

Are  word cloud , word shapes, word splash and word collage the same?

Though these are few differences between word shapes, word cloud, word splash and word collage. All of them can be used to illustrate however the main differences are the extra contents added to explain further or illustrate more of the contents that are being explained on the word document. For instance, word cloud is basically the alignment of several words in one specific image or confinement, while the words can come in different colour, shapes, and arrangement( vertical or horizontal). Word shapes on the other hand come with different shapes of images and items with fewer words.  In order words, word shapes are mostly images, used in describing a content. Word shapes are mostly used when describing the geographical components such as landmarks, or when illustrating some contents such as animals, books, and toys to children.  Just like word cloud, word shape is also specific in nature, all the words used to form the shape are closely related to the shape being formed, however, in some cases, one may use irrelevant words that will still connect other words within the shape.

Word splash can be described as a collection of concepts and terms related to a target topic, and such words are usually placed randomly around the heading (main topic). When a word splash is used, a teacher may ask his or her pupils to describe the relationship between the word splash contents and the main topic. An example of a word splash is when the main topic is education and the similar or closely related words such as; educator, library and so on, are splash all around the main topic.

Word collage is a form of artistic expression  but it is still a form of word cloud. They are custom word arts that comprises of several words used in creating an image. A word collage is different from word shape in the sense that a word shape is more relevant to the image in the background, however, a word collage may contain words that may not be relevant to the image being formed. A word collage can help one to become more creative when creating word clouds, a collage will normally require more features beyond the vertical and horizontal alignment features found in ordinary word clouds, and the reason being that you may have to arrange some words in circular or irregular alignments.

Despite their differences, word shapes, word splash, word collage and word cloud can be infused into each other to create something more unique and more acceptable. A teacher can make use of these four word generator to make create study materials.


Want to Make Your Own Word Map or Word Cloud Software Program?

It IS possible to make your own word map or word cloud software or template with the use of some programming languages. You may have to learn the programming skills first in order to achieve this. There is nothing too difficult when it comes to programming languages, all you need is a constant practice and you will be amazed with the rewards you will get once you are done Below are some of the ways you can create your own word cloud;

#1 Python Tutorials             

To generate word cloud through python, you should keep in mind that there are multiple codes you can use, however, the basic code is explained or highlighted below;

For installation, you need to use the code – pip install wordcloud

If you are making use of Conda, then you may find it easier to deploy anaconda cloud with the following code;

Conda install –c https://conda.Anaconda.org amueller wordcloud.

For the manual installation, you can consider using the following codes;

In order to Install the package, you can make use of the code;  python setup .py  install.

Just in case you are having issues with the pip installation, line ,you can simply make use of the .whl file, which can be located at www.lfd.uci.edu/~gohlke/pythonlibs/#wordcloud.

You can also generate wordcloud through a coline, the tool you can use in this case is wordcloud_csi.py, this tool can be used in generating word clouds directly from your command line. The command you can use is;

Just in case you are working with pdf files, you may have to use pdftotext in the command line;


For more resources, you can refer to these two links;




#2 JavaScript Tutorials

JavaScript can help you create some full customizable word cloud programs that you will be proud of. It should be noted that one of the most popular free online word cloud generators – Wordle, is written in JavaScript. Wordle makes use of the HTML 5 canvass, to achieve a great interactive speed.

To use JavaScript to construct a new word cloud layout, you need to make use of the command; # d3.layout.cloud.

You can make use of the “end” event, when your designed layout has completed the placement of all words.

The “start” layout algorithm can help you initialize the numerous layout attributes on your word objects, and this will start placing the words according to their sizes( the largest words are placed first). The placement will also start from the center of the rectangular word cloud region, and each of the placed words will be tested for possible collisions with already placed words, if collision is detected, the command line will simply place the word in another position within the spiral. Take note of the fact that if a word cannot be placed on any position in the spiral, then it may not be included in the final word cloud layout.

In order to stop the word cloud layout algorithm, you will need the command #stop ()

To set the time interval you will need to make use of set intervals for your layout, this will help you avoid locking up your browser’s event loop. When you specify this command, it will be the maximum amount of time that can be spent, otherwise, the time can be set at infinity. The command used to set time in word cloud is “#timeInterval”.

#words is the command that is used in JavaScript to specify a certain set of word array, while #size is the command used in setting the rectangular width and height of the word cloud layout. If the size is not specified then the layout will have the default word size.

#font will have to be specified in the layout, and this command will  set the font accessor function and that indicates the font face for each word. If the font is not specified then it will return to the default fonts in the layout which is usually “serif”.

#fontstyle is the command that must be specified in order to indicate the font style of each word, if not specified the default font style will be in place. The font size is the numerical value of each word. #fontWeight is the command used in assigning a weight to each word in the layout.

In order to set the font size function you need to type in the command;

you can replace the function here with a constant.

#rotate is the specified function or set that is used to rotate accessor function. This value will set the rotation angle of words in terms of degrees. You can use the following command to set the rotate for a particular word;

you need to replace the function with a constant here.

# spiral is the command used to specify the current type of spiral for the positioning of each word. There are two in-built spirals here; the Archimedean and rectangular. A typical spiral generator in word cloud layout should look like this;

#Padding indicates the numerical padding for each word, if this is not specified then the default padding will be effective.

#random  is the command word that will set the internal random number generator that can be used in setting the initial position for each word in the word cloud layout. This command also sets the clockwise and anticlockwise direction of the spiral for each word, and it will normally come within the 0, 1 range.

#Canvas is the canvas generator function that can be used in drawing a text. A typical canvas in word cloud layout should look like this;

You can refer to these two resources for more information;




How to make a Word Cloud

There are so many online apps or tools you can use in creating a word cloud or world map, most of these tools give you templates or Editors that will make it easier. You can also create your world map by hand or sketches and you must keep in mind that such a map is not intended to be pretty, even if the posters of middle earth that you see online look beautiful, building a word map is a completely different thing, you need to break things up here.

When you are building a word cloud, remember that you are building a functional map, likewise, when building a map, keep in mind you have to build several maps one after the other untilthey form a single map. Building a world map is like creating a visual notepad, hence you will be crossing things out and erasing stuff, just the way you edit your notes until you have a final manuscript.  You don’t need a photoshop; just a pad of scratch paper with your drawing pencil should be enough.

Here are the steps you should follow when building your own world map;

Step #1: Plan the world you need to build

First of all, you must first think about the world map you want to build, this should definitely be a smaller area than the planet from which you want to create the map. Since you are trying to tell a story with your map, you may want to focus on the limited area, you definitely have a verse land area to explore.

Step #2: Starts by creating a note about the relationships between the countries, states and power centers that you want to emphasize in the world map. For instance, are the countries on your map at war or are they close allies of simply fight over resources? Once you have noted the relationship between the countries or regions, you need to take note of their identical structures, for instance; are they famous for their expansive grain fields? Do they have large armies or natural defenses such as border walls? You need to focus on terrains at this point; the hills, mountains, major routes, sea, land and air terrains. Take note of the coastal lines, mountain ranges, and some other key features that will be useful later.

Step #3: Create some rough shapes of the countries or continents-  This is the time to start your world map, simply grab your pencil and your stacks of plain white papers and faintly draw circles around where the nations are located. Keep in mind that Nations that are allies or at war should be drawn closer, while the ones that rarely connect should be drawn further away, likewise countries that have some insurmountable barriers between them must be drawn farther away. You may think that drawing some circles on a map are pretty easy but at this stage you may have to perform few tries to get the relationships between the countries or regions  right.

Make some sketches like the one shown below;

Step #4: raw the coastlines and make sure you keep them random and broken

The circles you have drawn earlier are not really maps, you need to start drawing the physical features such as coastlines. Think about the countries that require coastal lines and the ones that need to be land-locked. Try as much as possible to avoid straight lines but let your pen wander. Keep in mind that coastal lines must be jagged and broken.

Step #5: Sketch the mountains – keep in mind that inverted triangles work best when drawing the mountains, don’t make them pretty.  Keep in mind that mountainous structures will often tend to form ridges, hence you must avoid being tempted to fill in the entire blocks of lands with mountains, instead create them in wavy lines. Mountains will usually follow in the edges of the coastlines on maps, and they tend to create natural boundaries between countries while creating obstacles for soldiers. If you have to create a desert in one region and a jungle in another area, then you should draw a mountain range in-between them.


Step #6: Take note of the fact that when rivers flow into coasts, they only join and don’t separate

Now you need to draw the rivers, take note of the fact that during rainfalls, water runs down the valleys and into the seas, and the rivers will always flow to the lowest points. This simply means that rivers will not brand as they continue to flow into the sea, they only join to the sea. For this reason, no river should go from one coast to another, and also remember that no lakes will have two river flowing into sea, only one lowest point will allow  river to flow out. When drawing rivers on the map, think about them as a tree where there is only one tree trunk (the sea), with numerous branches at the top (mountain).

Rivers are quite important in many ways, you can hardly find a river mouth I the world without a town nearby, likewise, the greatest cities in the world usually lie close to the river. When drawing your map you must allow decent sizes of rivers to be close to the main cities and towns, rivers and walls are usually used by nations and cities to fence off aggressors or enemies.


Step #7: Add your hills, and forests wherever they dim fit.

Most of your hills should be added close to the mountain edges, then you can create small forests and check how they fit together. Always keep in mind that you can always start afresh when you don’t like what you see, you  will have to spend more time and more sheets of papers. If you are comfortable with the terrains you have created, simply go over the pencil lines and then erase the lines (including the boundaries separating the countries).  You can simply scan or photocopy your map t this stage.


Step #8 : Make other additions

At this point, there are probably some details you have omitted, for instances, the resources being protected and hidden in certain regions and the lands that need to be annexed- you can make use of coloured pencil to sketch the different countries you want to emphasize or discuss via your world map. At this point you may also add your cities but keep in mind that cities are where they are located for some reasons, hence they must have food, water, shelter, and  security, likewise trade  and commerce are conducted in and around such. You may also locate capital cities in places that are well defended, please keep in mind you may have to do a lot of editing at this stage, and it is possible you re-direct streams and rivers.

Step #9: The final draft

This is just an illustration of how a world map should be for physical geographical structures. There are world maps for different purposes. You can also create world clouds or maps for activities or celebrations such as Father’s and Mother’s days, anniversaries, Kids rooms, and General arts. There are no limit to what you can use world maps for.

Best Sleep Apnea Pillow

By sgadmin / March 2, 2017
Apnea Pillow

Sleep Apnea, which is a condition that causes a lack of sleep and is tied to so many issues, including stress, certain medications, high blood pressure, diseases and infections, and psychological/emotional issues. If you are craving a good night sleep, the best sleep apnea pillow is able to reduce mild and chronic sleep apnea issues and, sleep apnea aside, it should be able to alleviate snoring and other associated problems.

sleepIn most cases, when anti-snoring pillows are used alongside certain adjustments to the way you sleep, you can achieve much better results.

For example, you should learn to sleep on your side because this will help offer positive airway pressure on the air passageway, thus providing you a much better sleeping pattern.

The ideal sleep apnea pillow may be with a firm, wedge-shaped pillow that will support the body when sleeping in the lateral position. You need to know that simple changes can make a huge difference in dealing with sleep apnea.

Most people often sleep in a supine position whereby they lay on their back or chest and these positions often cause the tongue and soft palate in the air passageway to drop and obstruct the free flow of air. Making use of a lateral sleeping position will help avoid such gravities and keep the air passageway open.

Apnea Pillow SleepIn order to create a lateral sleeping position, it is important that your sleep apnea pillow is designed with a firm and wedge-shaped. Experts believe that the length of the pillow should be between 20 and 30 inches in length and between 20-24 inches in width, while the elevation should be between 6 and 8 inches.

Most sleep apnea pillows are designed from polyurethane foam or memory foams. These materials have been found to be effective in promoting sleep through the following means:

  • They come with high foam density. Because of the higher the density, the more support you can get.
  • Memory foam will shape to your head and body, though some people have reported that they feel hot sometimes when they use such pillows.
  • Though regular and polyurethane foam will not shape to your body’s contours, they are highly effective and are inexpensive.
  • Feather pillows can be comfortable for some people, though some induce the collapse of the tissue at the back of the throat.

Wedge Foam PillowSome of the best-rated brands of sleep apnea pillows are, Bed wedge foam pillow, SONA FDA cleared anti-snore and mild sleep apnea pillow and Tempurpedic neck pillows.

If you are still finding it difficult to sleep on your side, you can also sleep in an upright position in order to keep the air passageways open.

An upright position will make breathing easier because it will keep your head elevated while you are sleeping. A contour and wedge pillow is one of the most suitable options to elevate the head and the neck and then ensure that an upright position is retained.  

You need to keep in mind that your pillow can actually make all the difference, especially when you have been diagnosed with an obstructive sleep apnea. Investing is such effective pillows are inexpensive and they can be the best simple treatment you should explore. You may want to see your doctor if your sleep apnea is caused by some other issues such as sinus blockages.

Some brand manufacturers of sleep apnea pillows have combined different features to create the perfect pillow that will deal with sleep apnea and provide several other benefits. Some of the main benefits of using a sleep apnea pillow are:

  • foamThey come with high foam density. Because of the higher the density, the more support you can get.
  • Memory foam will shape to your head and body, though some people have reported that they feel hot sometimes when they use such pillows.
  • Though regular and polyurethane foam will not shape to your body’s contours, they are highly effective and are inexpensive.
  • Feather pillows can be comfortable for some people, though some induce the collapse of the tissue at the back of the throat.

Some of the best-rated brands of sleep apnea pillows are, Bed wedge foam pillow, SONA FDA cleared anti-snore and mild sleep apnea pillow and Tempurpedic neck pillows.

If you are still finding it difficult to sleep on your side, you can also sleep in an upright position in order to keep the air passageways open. An upright position will make breathing easier because it will keep your head elevated while you are sleeping. A contour and wedge pillow is one of the most suitable options to elevate the head and the neck and then ensure that an upright position is retained.  

You need to keep in mind that your pillow can actually make all the difference, especially when you have been diagnosed with an obstructive sleep apnea. Investing is such effective pillows are inexpensive and they can be the best simple treatment you should explore. You may want to see your doctor if your sleep apnea is caused by some other issues such as sinus blockages.

perfect pillowSome brand manufacturers of sleep apnea pillows have combined different features to create the perfect pillow that will deal with sleep apnea and provide several other benefits. Some of the main benefits of using a sleep apnea pillow are:

  • completely compatible for back and side sleepers
  • completely eliminates or decrease snoring
  • it provides enhancement for the head and neck
  • improves the quality of sleep
  • it reduces daytime fatigue and sleepiness
  • it can help in providing relief against GERD or Acid reflux problems

The therapeutic sleep apnea pillow also offers some extra benefits that may not be found in some basic pillows, these include the following:

  • designed to work with virtually all kind of mask
  • aligns and supports the spine, as well as the neck especially while you are sleeping
  • provides essential support for the neck and head, while keeping the airways opened

neck painThe best sleep apnea pillows are designed by ergonomic designers in conjunction with other stakeholders such as chiropractic doctors. They can be designed as multi-purpose and dual-position pillows for providing relief against back and neck pain in addition to reducing snoring.

Everyone using CPAP masks can make use of these pillows and they are also designed in such a way that the height of the side of the pillow and will keep your neck in a perpendicular position with your shoulders, which makes it easier for side sleepers to sleep comfortably.

Individuals who use CPP masks may stop using such devices once they have gotten used to sleep apnea pillow in as little as two months.  When choosing the best sleep apnea pillow, there may be several other factors aside from the comfortability and effectiveness of the brands. For instance, the budget may be a factor even though most sleep apnea pillows are very effective.

snoreless pillowA brand like Snoreless Pillow will provide value for money; however, it is slightly more expensive than the average sleep apnea pillows around.

You may also want to check for extras such as money-back guarantee, though most brand manufacturers believe that pillows are capable of transmitting certain diseases when used by someone else, thus you may hardly find such concessions.

When choosing sleep apnea pillows, it is important that you consider the durability of the pillows. From the material used in making the pillow, you can tell which one will last longer than others; hence, you should be able to make a right choice. You may also read forums and ask others who have used certain pillow brands before making your purchase.

How to remove pages in MS Word

By sgadmin / March 2, 2017
Microsoft Word

Microsoft Word users often run into problematic pages from time to time and that is having a blank page or problematic page either in the middle or the end of a document. Unwanted text or pages in Microsoft Word may contain some page breaks, section breaks, and empty paragraphs. There are quite a number of options you can explore in order to remove an unwanted page in MS Word, hence one of the first things you need to do is to ascertain the reason why the unwanted page is there.

blac -pageTake note, if your black page appears only when printing and isn’t visible in the document, then you probably need to reconfigure your printer (you may need to remove the separator page which may have been added for printing purposes between printing jobs). Make sure you change the printer settings.

If you wish to remove, text, a paragraph or page contains words or images, at the top left of the section you want to remove, while holding the mouse or trackpad, simply left-click (with SHIFT) and scroll to the end of the section. Once highlighted, simply press “Backspace”.  If you wish to remove an entire document, then you just have to go to the folder where the document is stored and right-click before choosing the “Delete” option.

If the unwanted page is located at the bottom of a document, there is an easy way you can delete it. Simply scroll down to the bottom of that document by typing CRTL+End, and then press the back tab. If the blank page occurs due to added paragraphs, then this process should remove it quickly. If the document contains numerous pages you hope to remove trough this method then you may need to press backspace (delete) several times. If these methods suggested above did not work in removing an unwanted page in Word, then you will have to conduct further investigation. You can also take the following steps if deleting unwanted pages on MS Word is proving difficult:

CTRL+shift+8Step #1: Turn on the “Paragraph marks” in order to see the main cause or causes of the blank section/page, then hold down CTRL+shift+8.

Alternatively, you can press Show/Hide, located on the “Home” tab. Once “Paragraph marks” is switched on, it is easy to identify the main cause of blank page on your word document.

In the case of having additional paragraphs or extra blank page at bottom of the document, you may notice blank paragraph marks. If so, simply select the paragraph marks on the pages and click on “Delete” to remove them.

If there are manual page breaks triggering the empty pages on your word document, all you have to do is to position your cursor at the top of the page break and then click on “Delete” to remove them.  If the unwanted page is caused by a section break or other issues such as “Next page”, “Even” or “Odd page”, you may suddenly have a new page showing up in a Word document. Just in case the unwanted page occurs at the end of the document and you notice a section break around there, simply place your cursor just before the section break, and then press “Delete”, in order to remove the break.

If you find it difficult locating section breaks, simply click on the “View” tab of the ribbon and then switch onto the draft mode. You need to exercise some caution when removing a blank page located in the middle of your Word document, especially if it is caused by a section break.

You need to be aware of the fact that abruptly removing the section breaks may result in some formatting problems. In this case, you may have to keep a section break if you want your word document to keep its original formatting. Alternatively, you can just change the word document section break to a continuous one in order to preserve any formatting changes even after removing the blank page.

dialog box launcherStep #2:  If you want to change a section break into a continuous section break, all you need to do is simply place the cursor after the section break that you want to change, then simply click on the “Layout” tab located in the ribbon and simply click on the page setup “Dialog launcher”.

From the layout tab of the page set dialog box, simply click on “Section start” from the drop down menu and then click on “Continuous”. Then click on “OK”.

Step #3: Sometimes, the unwanted page at the end of your document may be as a result of a table located on a page preceding the unwanted page. The table may go all the way to the bottom of the preceding page, but Word format requires that there must be an empty paragraph should precede a new page; otherwise, if the table extends to the bottom of the preceding page, then it will push some into a new page.

This also means you will not be able to remove the unwanted page. The best possible way to handle this situation is just to hide the empty paragraph located at the bottom of the document.  You can follow these simple steps:

CTRL+DStep #1: Choose the paragraph mark and then click on CTRL+D open the font dialog.

Step #2: Tap on the hidden check box in order to hide the empty paragraph.

Step #3: Simply turn off the show-hide icon clicking on the button (it is located in the ribbon). Alternatively, you can also turn the “Show/Hide” option off by pressing CTRL+SHIFT 8 and the extra page will simply disappear.

You need to check that the document you are working on is properly formatted before you start typing. This will help you avoid the appearance of unwanted pages.

How To Iron On Patches

By sgadmin / March 2, 2017
Iron On Patches

If you are proud of displaying your brand on your jacket sleeve or you simply want to show off the skills and medals you obtained during summer camp, then you must learn to take care of those iron patches. Aside from displaying brands or certain achievements, patches can also be used to hide certain problems such as torn or damaged spots on garments and accessories. You need to learn to separate patches from the fabric, before ironing on them. Likewise, you need to also take care of issues such as making patches stay in place after you wash them.

Step 1: Prepare the iron on the patch

patchesYou need to understand the kind of patch you have. While some have fabric glue at the back and require a heat seal, others have cloth at the back. Make sure you examine the patch and see if you will need some extra material.

Decorative custom embroidered patches are usually thicker and stiffer, they seem to have some fabric glue at the back, while the transferred paper patches on are non-glossy prints on paper, which can be used in holding torn clothes together. Some patches come with simple cloth backing, while others are simply designed to blend with fabric. These are not as tough as custom embroidered patches.

Keep in mind that garments made of denim or cotton will provide a better base for ironing. You also need to consider the label of the custom patch to see if it can be ironed. Even if there is no label on the patch, make sure you consider the type of fabric it is made of. Make sure you don’t apply high heat when ironing polyester fabrics. High heat may burn the fabric of the patch or even discolor it. Silk and other delicate patches should not be ironed with heat.

Step #2: Consider the patch design and placement before ironing

Printable paper patchesJust before heating up your iron, simply lay out the jacket and consider the positioning of the patch(es). Likewise, you should consider where the patch will be placed if it has not been placed already. If you have just one patch to iron, simply place it in the best prominent and glaring place on the fabric, which also means you must make it appear intentional.

If you are planning on ironing more than one custom patch, make sure you make adequate space to accommodate as many patches as you can. Take note that, if you are making use of a printable paper patch, consider the fact that asymmetrical items and letters must appear in reverse.

Step #3: Ironing your patch

In order to iron your patch successfully, simply follow these steps:

Step #1: Simply lay the base item of the patch on a flat and heat-resistant surface.

ironing boardYou should consider making use of an ironing board. If you don’t have one, you can use a folded bath towel on a solid table. In order to ensure that the base item provides a solid base, make sure you can iron on it first.

Make sure it is arranged in such a way that that portion of the fabric that will receive the patch is totally flat against the ironing surface.

Step #2: Simply place your patch in the position you have chosen

Make sure the adhesive side is placed flat against the base of the fabric and the fabric is not crooked. Take note that the adhesive side is usually located on the underside of embroidered patches, while the adhesive side is normally located on the side where the image is located on transfer paper patches. If you are using a patch that is expected to blend into a fabric, you may have to apply such a patch to the reverse side of the fabric and make sure you follow the simple instructions for completing the ironing.

Step #3: Simply heat up the iron

Make sure you turn the iron to the hottest setting that the fabric can tolerate and make sure you turn off the steam option and try to avoid filling up the water area of the iron with water (just a little water is needed).

Step #4: Gently place a thin towel on top of the patch

thin towelMake sure you do everything possible to avoid disturbing the position of your patch, and a thin towel on top of the patch will simply protect the patch as well as the surrounding fabric.

Step #5: Place the iron properly over the patch (with a towel on top of the patch) and then press down. Make sure you hold the iron down for about 15 seconds and make sure you apply as much pressure as you can on the patch, while you press the iron down firmly.

Step #6: Remove your iron and let the patch cool

Lift up the towel and check if the patch has been securely fixed on the fabric. Gently rub the edge of the patch with your fingers and try to lift it. If the patch lifts up, simply replace the towel and then press for 10 seconds.

Step #7: Caring for your patch after ironing

patchThis step may not be necessary but it may be better if you sew around the edges of the patch. Sewing around the edge of a patch with a needle and a thread is one of the best possible ways of securing it to the fabric. This will ensure that the patch does not fall off. When taking this step, make sure you choose a thread that matches the color of the patch and fabric. This step is only ideal for embroidered patches, so do not make attempt to sew around paper patches.  

Secondly, make sure you don’t wash the fabric with the patch more than necessary. The reason being that iron patches are expected to last permanently when you wash them frequently, they will loosen up and fade.

How to Jailbreak Fire Stick

By sgadmin / March 2, 2017
How to Jailbreak Fire Stick

Amazon Fire TV Stick has become the best-selling Android TV set-top box in the past year and the reason being that it is affordable. Likewise, it is relatively easy to jailbreak. There are several ways to jailbreak Fire TV Stick without the use of a computer.

However, you have to choose the one that is most convenient for you. While some methods of jailbreak are simple, others can be tricky. In most cases, you may have to download a third-party app, such as Kodi 17 Krypton or Apps2fire. The different methods of jailbreak will work all generations of Amazon Fire TV set-top boxes.  The best possible ways to jailbreak Fire TV Stick are:

  • The use of ES File Explorer
  • the use of Android Phone with Apps2Fire
  • the use of a Mac or Windows computer
  • third party apps, without the need for a computer

Jail-breaking Fire TV Stick without computer

Amazon Fire TV StickThe easiest way to jailbreak Amazon Fire TV Stick is by avoiding the use of a computer. Most people often resort to a computer because they don’t have an Android phone.

Little did they know that not using a PC is the simplest way to jailbreak.

Step #1: Simply turn on your Amazon Fire TV Stick and then connect it to a Wi-Fi Internet.

Step #2: go to the “settings” option on the device.

Step #3: Navigate through to “System” and click on it.

Step #4: Once you are on “System” simply scroll down and click on “Developers” options.

Step #5: You need to enable ADB debugging, as well as all other third-party apps.

Step #6: Once you have debugged ADB and other third party apps, you need to return to the “Home” screen of your Fire TV Stick and click on “Search”.

Step #7: simply key in “Downloader” in your search option, and make sure you don’t add any other quotes. Click on “Start” next to the search.

KodiStep #8: You will see a wide range of results and you will see the “Downloaded” app, which is identified by an orange color. Simply download and install.

Step #9: Once the app has been installed, simply open it. Once you have installed the app, open it and you will see the user-friendly interface that you can use to complete the jailbreak of Fire TV Stick.

Step #10: Inside the text, simply type the following Kodi URL to download the app: https://www.drgeeky.com/k17apk

Step #11: Once downloaded, you will be asked if you want to install “Kodi”. Simply choose the “Install” option and Kodi will be automatically installed on the Fire TV Stick, which also means you have jailbreak on your device.

How to jailbreak Amazon Fire TV Stick with your Android smartphone

If you have Android OS on your smartphone, you should be able to jailbreak Amazon Fire TV Stick. Just like the previous jailbreak method, all you need to do is install Kodi on your smartphone and the jailbreak steps can be completed.  Here are the steps you must follow:

Step #1: Simply connect your smartphone to the same Wi-Fi Internet that your Fire TV Stick is connected to. Make sure both devices are using the same Wi-Fi connectivity. If not, this procedure simply won’t work.

Google Play StoreStep #2: Open the Google Play Store from your Android smartphone and then click and install apps2fire.

Step #3: You will have to install Kodi on your smartphone also but have in mind that the version of Kodi that will be installed will depend on the version of your Android OS. You may want to install Krypton instead of Kodi. You can find both of them on Google play store.

Step #4: Simply click on the “Settings” of your Fire TV Stick, and then move to “System” and click on it.

Step #5: Simply scroll down from the “Systems” page and then click on “Developers” option.

Step #6: On the developer’s option, simply click and enable “ADB debugging and apps from other sources”.

Step #7: Simply click on “Settings”, then click on “Systems” and then choose “About”.  Make sure you write down the IP address of your Fire TV Stick device.

Step #8: Make sure apps2fire app is already on your smartphone. Open this app and simply put your Fire TV Stick IP address in the settings of the app.

Step #9: Simply swipe to the left of your phone and you will see “Local apps”.  Simply tap on the Kodi icon and the app2fire app will automatically download and install it. You can then check for it by clicking on “Settings”, and then “applications”.

Jailbreaking Fire TV Stick with the use of ES file explorer  and without using a computer

ES file explorerMaking use of the ES File Explorer is another effective option for jailbreaking your Fire TV Stick device without the use of a PC.

This maybe one of the most popular ways of jailbreaking Fire TV Stick but it can also be tricky. You can handle this procedure by following these steps:

Step #1: Turn on the firestick device and make sure it is connected to a wi-fi internet.

Step #2: Simply go to “Settings” on your device and then go to “Systems” and click on it.

Step #3: Scroll down to the systems option and then select “Developers” option.

ADB debugging Step #4: Simply enable the ADB debugging option as well as apps from unknown sources and, once you have done this, simply go to the Fire TV Stick main screen, and click on “Search”.

Step #5: Type in “ES File Explorer” and you will see it from the search results you obtain.

Step #6: select the ES Explorer and simply install it by clicking on “Install button”.

Step #7: Once the ES Explorer has been installed, the install button will simply turn to “Open” button. Simply select the open button and the ES File Explorer will be automatically launched on your Fire TV Stick.

Step #8: From the “Left” menu, simply click on “Favorites” and click on the “Add” button. Here, you will see a pop-up where you need to add the URL of your Kodi download page. Simply select the add button and Kodi will be added to your Fire TV Stick and jailbreak should be complete. Enjoy!


How To Open A Locker

By sgadmin / March 1, 2017
Opening Locker

A lot of people often find it annoying when they get to the locker room and get stuck at their locker, especially when they are opening a locker for the first time without any idea of how to do it. With a little practice, opening a locker should get easier. If you become an expert, then you should be able to open at least 99% of all locker types.

Step #1: Opening Your Locker When You Know The Master Lock’s Combination

Opening Your LockerTo open your locker when you know the dial combination, simply spin the dial in the clockwise direction at least 3 times to the right. This will help you clear previous numbers. Also, if you mess up while putting your combination, you can start over.

Step #2: Put In Your Combination

Simply turn the dial of your master lock to the right and then pause at the first number. Make sure you always start unlocking with a turn to your right. For your second number, simply turn the dial to your left and make sure you go pass the zero number and your first number and then pause on your second number.

Keep in mind that some locks can be finicky. If your locker is not opening after putting the first three numbers correctly, then you should try and turn to the left pass the second number in the combination. Do this once and then stop once the net number goes around. For your third number, simply turn your dial to the right and go straight to the last number (make sure you leave the lock on the last number). Keep in mind to turn the dial right, left, and right.

Step #3: Open the locker up

locker uplocker upMake sure you pull the lock open by pulling it out of the hole. If it has a handle, simply pull it or the latch. In case the locker does not open, you can simply try it again and dial 5 before your last number or after the official last combination number.

Often, the older locks may become shaky. Just in case all these options fail, you can simply ask your school teacher or students if there are similar problems in the school locker system. Make sure you try opening the locker at least twice before you inform your teacher or fellow students.

Step #4: Make sure you lock the locker properly after usage

If your locker has an unattached lock, then make sure you lock it before leaving. Make sure the lock is closed and twist it a little. Do not leave your locker on the last number because it will open easily next time someone else tries it.

Step #5: Opening your locker if you don’t know your combination

Opening your locker when you forgot or don’t know your combination can be a difficult issue but you can try some tricks. Apply a little pressure upwards. This means you need to use your fingers by wrapping them around the latch. The locker should pull up a little even though it is locked. While you are still doing this, simply rotate the lock in an anti-clockwise direction until it becomes locked.

Pen and PaperYou will have to apply some little pressure while doing this but keep in mind that the lock wouldn’t break. Once it locks, you must get a pen and a paper and write down the numbers at which it locks. You should try and repeat these steps up to 11 times and 7 of these numbers will be in-between two digits, simply ignore those digits.

As you continue with 5 outliers, one number will not end in the same digit. Then you can make this your third number. It is important that you know where the locks stop at; hence, you need to be diligent when opening the lock.

Step #6: Making use of trial and error

errorsWhen using trial and error to open a locker, especially when you don’t know the combination, you must keep in mind that you will be down to 100 possible combinations.

Secondly, you will spend up to 15 minutes or more on doing this, but keep in mind that your third number should allow you to eliminate the possible first and second numbers. You need to persevere and the lock will eventually open.

Take note of some possible outcomes. For instance, if your third number is 32, 36, 28, 24, 16, 20, 8,0, 4, 2, then your first number will like be one of them (the third number), and your second number will either be 38, 34, 30, 26, 18, 22, 14, 0, 14, 6, or 10.

Similarly, if your third number is an odd number (13, 5, 9, 1, 25, 17, 21, 37, 29, 33 or 25), then your second number will also be an odd number which could be 11, 15, 7, 1, 27, 19, 23, 39, 31, or 35.

You need to ensure that you make use of all possible combinations in order to get the right number combination to open your locker but one thing is certain: You will definitely get the right combination number before you reach the 100th combination! It is important that you also memorize your combinations or write them somewhere and take it with you everywhere you go.

zeroSecondly, do not write your combination numbers in the same location as your locker number. Once you are done getting what you want from your locker, simply close the locker and then turn it into zero. Some locks can be very difficult to handle.

You may have to tug on them harder and lean on the locker a little bit. Sometimes the latch will have to be jiggled a little just to coax it to open. If your locker works different from normal lockers, then you must read directions that come with it.

Sometimes, you just have to hit a number close to the actual number and not the exact number, in order to open your locker. However, if nothing still works, simply ask for help from the appropriate people.

What does Active Directory mean?

By sgadmin / March 1, 2017
Active Directory

Active Directory (or AD) can be described as a standardized and centralized network system that is deployed in automating networks. AD was developed by Microsoft for Windows-based domain networks; hence, the directory is included in all Windows server operating systems. What’s more, it involves quite a number of processes and services.

Windows server 2008Initially, AD was designed to handle centralized domain management. It all started with Windows server 2008 and has since become the base for a wider range of directory-based services. A domain controller is referred to a server running Active Directory. It is the server that authenticates and authorizes.

AD is used in authenticating and authorizes users on computers that are registered on Windows domain networking, thus assigning and enforcing security updates on such computers. When you log onto a computer that is registered under Windows domain, the AD on the computer will check all submitted passwords and check if you are a system administrator or a visiting user. The AD will allow storage and management of information only at the admin level.

Active Directory services are linked with several other services, including:

  • Domain servicesDomain services
  • Lightweight directory services
  • Certificate services
  • Rights and management services

Active Directory Domain Services, also known as ACDS, can be referred to as the backbone of every Windows domain network. It simply stores all information about members of a domain which include the users and the devices connected. The ACDS verifies credentials as well as grants or denies rights to use devices with Windows domains.

The domain controller may also be a cluster of different servers and it is the first thing protocol that will be contacted when the user has logged onto the device. Some other active directory domain services include encryption of file system, domain name services, exchanger servers, and SharePoint server.

Lightweight Directory Services is another service rendered under active directory services. Known as ADLDS, it is a lightweight implementation service that runs on identical API. This service does not require the recreation of sub-domains and one of its functions is to provide data storage facilities. Multiple ADLDS can be run on the same server.  Certificate services are available on ADCS are on-premise public key infrastructure. This certificate service can be used to revoke and validate any public key certificate for internal usage within an organization.

Windows serverCertificate services are used in encrypting files, email, and also used in virtual private networks, transport layer protocol, and other network traffic control systems. ADCS was released before Windows server 2008 and has been used to regulate certificate authentication on the Windows server.

Right Management Services is software information that regulates Windows server’s emails and web pages. This software makes use of form and encryption functionality in denying or limiting access to documents on Windows servers. All corporate emails, Microsoft word documents, and web operations on Windows servers will require authorizes to perform them.

The Logical structure of AD

Windows 2000Being a directive service, AD consists of some databases, as well as executable codes that the service requests. The executable part of the AD is the directory system agent comprises of several Windows services that process and run on Windows 2000 and newer versions.

The objects in these databases are accessed via LDAP and ADSI which are components of object model interface. Other essential components of AD are the API and Security Accounts Manager services.

The AD comprises of “objects” that are used in coding information and these objects are categorized into two: Resources and Security principals. Security objects in AD include printers, while security principal objects include groups and computer accounts. Each object within the AD represents an entity; however, the deployment of the objects can cause a significant disruption to the working of the AD. Fortunately, objects can be created and or deleted from the AD. However, this will require adequate planning.

Active Directory Levels

Active Directories also comprises levels—just as objects—these include the Trees, Forests, and domains. These are the logical divisions of an active directory network. Objects are usually grouped into domains within a deployment, while the objects of single domains are located inside a single database and the database can also be replicated. Domains are usually identified through their active domain names.

The domain in Active Directory is often referred to as the logical group of network objects (objects may include computer devices and users). The objects in the same domain must share the same database within an Active directory (AD).

Active Directory LevelsA tree is referred to as a collection of more than one domain and at the top of the structure of the AD hierarchy, is the “Forest”. A forest is simply a collection of trees of common logical structure or configuration.

The forest is simply a security boundary within which users, groups, and computers can access different objects. Considering the physical structure, AD holds the definitions for all connections and it helps differentiate between low and high-speed network infrastructures.

An example of a low-speed network is the WAN or VPN, while the LAN is a high-speed network. The control of network traffic within the AD is handled by domain controllers. Any network that utilizes AD will usually come with multiple window server computers. It must be noted that domain controllers used in Active Directories must not be allowed to perform other software roles in order to avoid redundancy or slow performance. Domain controllers will allow multiple updates in different sections of the Active Directory.

Similarly, “Trusting” is a process whereby the domain controllers allow users on one domain to access some resources from another domain. When it comes to providing trust services, the AD many allow a user to access resources in certain domains but prevent the user from accessing resources from other domains (this is referred to as one-way trust). A two-way trust is a kind of trust where the AD will allow access to two main domains).

How to take X-ray Photos

By sgadmin / March 1, 2017
X-ray Photos

Most people often find it difficult to take X-ray photos by themselves because they get loads of reflections that can mess with their images. However, we are not talking about a chest X-ray, dental X-rays or those taken by an X-ray technician here. We are talking about fashionable X-ray photography.

X-ray technicianAnd you certainly don’t have to be an X-ray technician to take this kind of X-ray pictures. All you need to do is familiarize with old fashioned equipment. X-rays work in similar way to some visible light rays and both have wave-like forms involving electromagnetic energy.

Human eyes cannot see X-rays because the eyes are only sensitive to wave forms of visible lights. X-ray machines work by directing its rays through soft tissues such as the skin and these rays bounce back when they meet thicker tissues inside the body, thus creating images of internal structure of the body.

X-rays are useful for so many things and, fortunately, you can do it by yourself. Most people will think that X-rays are only good for science and medical purposes only, especially in detecting diseases, fractures, and deformities. Those who are fashion-conscious, however, know that X-rays can be great in photography.

When used as X-ray photography, the photographer can make use of different forms of light in exposing what the ordinary light cannot see; hence, an everyday object can take on another dimension when X-ray photography is used. When you become creative with X-ray photography, you can perform many wonders. For instance, you can turn a beautiful doll into a scary zombie.

How to take X-ray photos by yourself

X-ray machinesThere are affordable X-ray machines you can find online and if you don’t have a budget to get new one, you can simply go for the refurbished on e-commerce websites like Amazon and eBay.

Make sure the product you are purchasing online are tested. You may also consider picking up a used or refurbished dental or medical X-ray machine.

If you want to be more adventurous, there are resources where you can learn how to make your own X-ray machine for less than $50. You may want to get advice from a doctor before you make your own X-ray machine or purchase one, as X-rays in the wrong hands can be harmful to the human body.

You can also make use of Sunprints, which are much safer and they work just like X-rays. Sunprints were created by a group of scientists at the University of Berkley. Sunprints are a collection of coated papers that makes use of sunlight exposure and then make use of water to develop the prints. These are excellently simple and they don’t expose the human body to the risk of cancer or other health hazards associated with prolong exposure to X-ray machines.

Sunprints’ kitYou can simply buy a Sunprints’ kit and then gather some objects, such as paper, dry bones, or bike sprockets of bikes and place them on a piece of paper.

Make sure they are exposed to the sun for about 5 minutes before rinsing the Sunprints in water and then hanging them flat to dry. You may want to get something neater; thus, you should look out for high contrast black and white film during photography.

Here are some steps you can follow to take X-ray pictures but keep in mind that you may need to have the actual final X-ray images scanned by a competent operator or make use of an ideal scanner. If you want to produce the X-ray images by yourself, then you will need to make use of the daylight sunshine except your camera has some sophisticated lightning system. You need to create a matt finish for your X-rays.

tripodYou should choose an overcast yet bright day while taping the X-ray to your window. Likewise, you must ensure that the pictures are taken on a tripod for maximum stability and make sure that you don’t use flash with daylight exposures.

Step #1: Make sure you position the camera level in such a way that the lens is centered precisely and in a parallel position with the X-ray device.

Step #2: Just in case the window is exposed to a scene that may interfere with your shots, simply place a taped sheet of paper to the window, in order to diffuse the light.

Step #3: Take a sheet of opaque black paper that is large enough to cover your X-rays and then make use of 6-8 inches of black paper on all sides. Make sure you cut a small opening on the black paper (exactly the same size as that of the X-ray), then simply tape this mask on your window to create a blockage against any other light.

Step #4: Tighten your X-ray close enough in such a way that the black matt creates a blockage against all other lights and images around the edges of your view. As a precaution, you can take some preliminary shots and check your images. You can also move the camera inwards just in case the viewfinder does not provide an accurate edge.

X-rayStep #5: Take several test shots and make sure you work with the white point on your camera, in order to achieve the best reproduction you can hope for.

Once the shots have been taken, make use of the “levels” command on your camera to neutralize the range of grays and try as much as possible to ensure that there are white and black dots. You can make your initial prints and experiment with different X-ray prints until you get the desired results.

When it comes to taking good X-ray shots, your initial shots may be difficult to get. However, once you are able to get it right, your subsequent X-ray photos should look so much better.

You need to ensure that you make use of the right equipment and create the best features (including lightning) and take note of the positions of your camera (distance and arrangement) in order to achieve the best possible results. Make sure you invest a decent amount in good quality camera and optimize the effects of your environment when taking X-ray pictures.

What Does ATP Stand For?

By sgadmin / February 28, 2017
What Does ATP Stand For?

What Does Adaptive Tuning Protocol Stand For?

ATP, also known as “Adaptive Tuning Protocol”, is a data transport layer protocol in Internet network design. This Internet protocol helps conserve energy performance, especially within the Internet of Things (IoT). During transfer of Internet packets, there is a significant consumption of energy, especially on the battery power of network infrastructure sensor node and this issue can constitute a problem if not checked.

Internet serviceThe overhead problem is normally caused by the regular update messages that are sent to the Internet service directories.

ATP, therefore, is the protocol used as an adaptive tuning resolution in between the sensor nodes and the resource directory, in order to adjust the number and frequencies of updates by checking the battery performance levels of the sensing node. This protocol can work in different modes for effectiveness.

Nowadays, it is believed that more than 3 billion devices rely on the Internet for data usage and by the end of the decade, it is expected that there will be over 50 billion devices on the planet. For this reason, the ATP will play a pivotal role, especially in ensuring that Internet services will be reached by all devices. Unless there is a mechanism put in place, the massive number of sensors that will be required to handle the growing demands for Internet services will be too much to handle.

The importance of the ATP within the Internet network transport layer

The ATP protocol within the transport layer of network infrastructure may provide numerous services, including the following:

  • Provide a connection-oriented communication, whereby it interprets connection as a data stream rather than dealing with the underlying connection models. This will allow the ATP to focus on classifying data in order to reduce overload.
  • guaranteeProvide same order delivery, in which it allows data to arrive the same way they are sent. The network layer cannot guarantee that data will arrive the same way they are sent. This is definitely a desirable service within the network architecture especially when segment numbering is involved.
  • It offers a reliable system of network handling. It is believed that some packets of data may be lost while being transmitted from one end to the other. Loss of data packets may result from congestion in Internet network, and numerous errors. The ATP makes use of different error detection codes to ensure that data being transferred is not corrupted and thereafter will verify the receipt of data being sent by sending a message to the data packet sender. Lost and corrupted data can be re-transmitted via the ATP protocol, through the use of “Automatic repeat request”.
  • It provides an excellent flow control service within the network infrastructure. It provides this service by managing the rate of data transmission, in-between two nodes.
  • It ensures flow control by ensuring that the rate of data transfer between two nodes are managed effectively to ensure that fast message senders are prevented from transmitting too many messages more than what can be supported by the network. It does this by creating a “Data buffer,” which is intended to trigger a data overrun. This step can also be used in preventing data under-run and boost efficiency.
  • Telecommunication networksIt helps prevent or avoid congestion. Within the transport layer of the network infrastructure, the ATP can help prevent or avoid data congestion by providing a traffic control entry into Telecommunication networks. This, in turn, will help prevent congestive collapse through the avoidance of the over-subscription to the processing of data between nodes. It can also handle this situation by reducing the rates at which data packets are sent.
  • For instance, a network may be kept in a redundant or congested state when there are too many automatic requests. This situation can be prevented by simply adding congestion avoidance to the flow of control. An example of congestion avoidance is “slow start” technique that will simply keep the bandwidth consumption at a very low level, especially at the beginning of transmission or after the transmission of the packets.
  • Multiplexing functions. These are specific functions in which different ports are provided with multiple entry points within singles. This simply means different recipients forwarding data to the same location can be distinguished from each other through the use of different entry points on the same port. This also means you can make use of more than one network at the same time.

The ATP is an essential component of network infrastructure transport layer that delivers data to the appropriate process within different host computers. The multiplexing of data from different processes of application will help in reducing redundancies in the formation of data packets, while the addition of source and destination port numbers in the header of the transport layers will ensure that communication is facilitated within the network infrastructure.

errorsThough the ATP is not directly involved in some other processes such as the generation of error recovery codes, but it plays a prominent role in such functions by generating the repeat request protocols, which is necessary for the identification of the source of an error and possible solutions to such errors.

ATP is able to handle different errors because of the different codes attached to such errors; therefore, it takes little or no time to resolve errors by identifying such codes. This ensures that vulnerabilities and latency risks are reduced.

The ATP protocol of Internet network can be configured according to the size of the Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Local Area Network (WLAN). This means that the protocol is needed for smaller and wider networks. The reliability of ATP makes it easier for network administrators to implement several other protocols into a network. For instance, securing a network infrastructure becomes much easier when an effective ATP is deployed. With an effective ATP structure, networks would be less susceptible to phishing and some other vulnerable attacks.

What Dose Lice Look Like?

By sgadmin / February 28, 2017
What Do Lice Look Like?

What Do Lice Look Like?

Lice—also referred to as head lice or nits—normally appear as white or gray–brown in color and it can be found attached to some parts of humans or animals. The immature head lice usually have the brownish gray or white color, while the adult lice may look brownish or brown-black in color.

Head louse eggsHead louse eggsHead louse eggs are usually the size of a flake of dandruff and such eggs could be yellow or white and appear as oval in shape.

They are usually attached to the hair of humans and animals, especially the area closest to the scalp. The hair and scalp usually provide a warm temperature for the incubation of the lice egg.

Most nits are usually located close to the neckline or somewhere behind the ears or at the back of the head. They can be sometimes located in eyebrows or eyelashes but that is not common.  The female louse is known to produce a sticky substance that ensures each egg is attached to the shaft of the hair and any egg that is located between ½ and ¼ distance from the scalp is an indication that it will hatch very soon, or they may simply be empty casings of the lice.

Once the lice have hatched, the immature nymph is whitish or grey-brown in color and it will develop 8 hook-like claws, as well as a body that is smaller than a pinhead. Most eggs laid by female lice will hatch within 6-9 days, while the nymph will become fully adult within 7 days after hatching.

LouseLouse life cycle. The adult head lice usually measure around 1/8th of an inch and live for just 30 days on the average if it has continuous access to human blood. Adult lice that have no blood meal will usually live for around 1-2 days.

Most adult female lice are quite larger than male lice, and they can easily lay up to 8 eggs in different locations per day. Lice are usually darker when they are found in darker hair while those in blond hair will usually appear lighter in color.

Generally, head lice will feed on human blood and they also inject saliva into their host and they ensure they constantly feed on the blood of the host in order to prevent a blood clot from forming. This will eventually trigger itching, which is an allergic reaction.

When lice are not treated, there may be a secondary infection, whereby the scratching of the scalp becomes more intense and this may cause bruises and bleeding. Though the presence of lice can be very frustrating they are not dangerous and they do not transmit any disease.

Lice are usually transmitted from an individual to another through person-to-person contact and via the hair. It should be noted that common lice cannot fly, nor can they jump or swim; thus, the only way they can be transmitted is through head-to-head contact, especially via the hair. The infestation of head lice cannot be caused by greasy hair or poor hygiene; however, head lice can affect anyone regardless of hair length. Though head lice can only affect humans. However, certain species of lice may be found on some animals.

researchResearch has shown that head lice may survive under water for several hours and it can be extremely difficult to remove them or wash them unless the hair is completely shaved and treatments applied. Head lice are known to use their claw-like bodies to attach themselves firmly to the scalp of the hair when they are washed.

Also, the addition of chlorine to swimming pools will not destroy head lice, no matter how concentrated such chlorine can be. When they spend much time in water, lice may gain more body weight as they swell up slightly.

Female lice are known to start laying new eggs some 9 days after their eggs have hatched and you may have to remove lice before they hatch in order to break their cycle and prevent them from spreading. Itching or “pruritus” is the most prominent symptom of a head louse infestation and this is mostly caused by the saliva released by lice during maturation. Not everyone will be allergic to head lice and, in many instances, the infestation can be asymptomatic.

difficulty in sleepingIn some cases, people can become extremely sensitive to the bites from lice and start feeling extensive itching, while others have developed tolerance to itching caused by lice, even after repeated infections.

Some other symptoms of lice, aside from itching, include crawling or tickling sensation in the hair, irritability, and difficulty in sleeping, and sores that result on the scalp, especially as a result of continuous scratching of the hair and scalp.

Lice may be difficult to spot on humans even on close inspection and this confusion often lead to a misdiagnosis of lice. Even when lice have been eradicated, the eggs may remain attached to the scalp. For this reason, the observation of empty shells or un-hatched eggs is the first physical diagnosis that must be conducted. While head lice can be visible to the eye, you may need a magnifying lens in order to detect crawling lice.

dandruffYou may also need an aid in order to identify the presence of nymphs, in most cases. People often confuse the lice with dandruff; thus, making it difficult to eradicate them. Some people may also confuse eggs with dirt particles or hairspray droplets and don’t think they need head louse treatment.

The standard for identifying lice infestation is to identify a louse in the head physically. However, this may be difficult because lice are known to hide from light and then crawl quickly out of site. In order to make it easier to identify lice, you must make use of a fine-toothed comb, though this type of comb works best with wet hair but it can also work well in identifying and removing lice on dry hair.

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